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Computer Music

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As one of our highest expressions of thought and creativity, music has always been a difficult realm to capture, model, and understand. The connectionist paradigm, now beginning to provide insights into many realms of human behavior, offers a new and unified viewpoint from which to investigate the subtleties of musical experience. Music and Connectionism provides a fresh approach to both fields, using the techniques of connectionism and parallel distributed processing to look at a wide range of topics in music research, from pitch perception to chord fingering to composition.

The contributors, leading researchers in both music psychology and neural networks, address the challenges and opportunities of musical applications of network models. The result is a current and thorough survey of the field that advances understanding of musical phenomena encompassing perception, cognition, composition, and performance, and in methods for network design and analysis.

Contributors. Jamshed J. Bharucha. Peter Desain. Mark Dolson. Robert Gjerclingen. Henkjan Honing. B. Keith Jenkins. Jacqueline Jons. Douglas H. Keefe. Tuevo Kohonen. Bernice Laden. Pauli Laine. Otto Laske. Marc Leman. J. P. Lewis. Christoph Lischka. D. Gareth Loy. Ben Miller. Michael Mozer. Samir I. Sayegh. Hajime Sano. Todd Soukup. Don Scarborough. Kalev Tiits. Peter M. Todd. Kari Torkkola.

Representation, Retrieval, Restoration

The Virtual Score examines a broad range of approaches to working with musical scores in ways suited to electronic distribution. The first section, on musical representation and interchange, discusses early music and its multiple editorial stances, scores in Braille musical notation (with and without NIFF), the GUIDO format for "adequate" (as opposed to comprehensive) music representation, Extensible Markup Language (XML) and music, and the latest methods for distributing scores online. The second section discusses retrieval and/or analysis of data from encoded melodies. The final section discusses the use of image-processing software to restore lost features of primary sources of music prints and manuscripts, to archive the original and/or restored images, and, in some cases, to facilitate electronic access to the images.

An Introduction to Psychoacoustics
Edited by Perry R. Cook

How hearing works and how the brain processes sounds entering the ear to provide the listener with useful information are of great interest to psychologists, cognitive scientists, and musicians. However, while a number of books have concentrated on individual aspects of this field, known as psychoacoustics, there has been no comprehensive introductory coverage of the multiple topics encompassed under the term. Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound is the first book to provide that coverage.

The book begins with introductory chapters on the basic physiology and functions of the ear and auditory sections of the brain, then proceeds to discuss numerous topics associated with the study of psychoacoustics, including cognitive psychology and the physics of sound. The book has a particular emphasis on music and computerized sound. 

Techniques and Ideas Using Max

Interactive music refers to a composition or improvisation in which software interprets live performances to produce music generated or modified by computers. In Composing Interactive Music, Todd Winkler presents both the technical and aesthetic possibilities of this increasingly popular area of computer music. His own numerous compositions have been the laboratory for the research and development that resulted in this book.

The author's examples use a graphical programming language called Max. Each example in the text is accompanied by a picture of how it appears on the computer screen. The same examples are included as software on the accompanying CD-ROM, playable on a Macintosh computer with a MIDI keyboard.

Although the book is aimed at those interested in writing music and software using Max, the casual reader can learn the basic concepts of interactive composition by just reading the text, without running any software. The book concludes with a discussion of recent multimedia work incorporating projected images and video playback with sound for concert performances and art installations.

Perspectives in Software Synthesis, Sound Design, Signal Processing, and Programming

Created in 1985 by Barry Vercoe, Csound is one of the most widely used software sound synthesis systems. Because it is so powerful, mastering Csound can take a good deal of time and effort. But this long-awaited guide will dramatically straighten the learning curve and enable musicians to take advantage of this rich computer technology available for creating music.

Written by the world's leading educators, programmers, sound designers, and composers, this comprehensive guide covers both the basics of Csound and the theoretical and musical concepts necessary to use the program effectively. The thirty-two tutorial chapters cover: additive, subtractive, FM, AM, FOF, granular, wavetable, waveguide, vector, LA, and other hybrid methods; analysis and resynthesis using ADSYN, LP, and the Phase Vocoder; sample processing; mathematical and physical modeling; and digital signal processing, including room simulation and 3D modeling.

Supplemental Content is now available for download at http://mitpress.mit.edu/9780262522618

Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance


This volume presents the most up-to-date collection of neural network models of music and creativity gathered together in one place. Chapters by leaders in the field cover new connectionist models of pitch perception, tonality, musical streaming, sequential and hierarchical melodic structure, composition, harmonization, rhythmic analysis, sound generation, and creative evolution. The collection combines journal papers on connectionist modeling, cognitive science, and music perception with new papers solicited for this volume. It also contains an extensive bibliography of related work.

Contributors: Shumeet Baluja, M. I. Bellgard, Michael A. Casey, Garrison W. Cottrell, Peter Desain, Robert O. Gjerdingen, Mike Greenhough, Niall Griffith, Stephen Grossberg, Henkjan Honing, Todd Jochem, Bruce F. Katz, John F. Kolen, Edward W. Large, Michael C. Mozer, Michael P. A. Page, Caroline Palmer, Jordan B. Pollack, Dean Pomerleau, Stephen W. Smoliar, Ian Taylor, Peter M. Todd, C. P. Tsang, Gregory M. Werner.


Concepts, Procedures, and Applications

This volume covers a wide range of approaches to fundamental questions about music, such as: What is similarity in music? How do we recognize it? How can we program computers to recognize it? Topics include concepts and procedures, tools and applications, human melodic judgments, and online tools for melodic searching. The contributors draw on theoretical approaches and practical results from computer science and network models, folk-music archives and bibliographical collaborations, algorithmic composition, classical-music history, ethnomusicology and social psychology, and case law in claims of popular music plagiarism.

Contributors:
David Bainbridge, David Cope, Tim Crawford, Charles Cronin, Ewa Dahlig, Dominik Hörnel, John Howard, Costas S. Iliopoulos, Andreas Kornstädt, Rodger J. McNab, Nigel Nettheim, Donncha Ó Maidín, Rajeev Raman, Helmut Schaffrath, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Lloyd A. Smith, Ian H. Witten, Masato Yako.

Computing in Musicology 11

The Handbook of Musical Codes


The establishment of the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) in the late 1980s allowed hobbyists and musicians to experiment with sound control in ways that previously had been possible only in research studios. MIDI is now the most prevalent representation of music, but what it represents is based on hardware control protocols for sound synthesis. Programs that support sound input for graphics output necessarily span a gamut of representational categories. What is most likely to be lost is any sense of the musical work. Thus, for those involved in pedagogy, analysis, simulation, notation, and music theory, the nature of the representation matters a great deal. An understanding of the data requirements of different applications is fundamental to the creation of interchange codes.

The contributors to Beyond MIDI present a broad range of schemes, illustrating a wide variety of approaches to music representation. Generally, each chapter describes the history and intended purposes of the code, a description of the representation of the primary attributes of music (pitch, duration, articulation, ornamentation, dynamics, and timbre), a description of the file organization, some mention of existing data in the format, resources for further information, and at least one encoded example. The book also shows how intended applications influence the kinds of musical information that are encoded.

Contributors: David Bainbridge, Ulf Berggren, Roger D. Boyle, Donald Byrd, David Cooper, Edmund Correia, Jr., David Cottle, Tim Crawford, J. Stephen Dydo, Brent A. Field, Roger Firman, John Gibson, Cindy Grande, Lippold Haken, Thomas Hall, David Halperin, Philip Hazel, Walter B. Hewlett, John Howard, David Huron, Werner Icking, David Jaffe, Bettye Krolick, Max V. Mathews, Toshiaki Matsushima, Steven R. Newcomb, Kia-Chuan Ng, Kjell E. Nordli, Sile O'Modhrain, Perry Roland, Helmut Schaffrath, Bill Schottstaedt, Eleanor Selfrdige-Field, Peer Sitter, Donald Sloan, Leland Smith, Andranick Tanguiane, Lynn M. Trowbridge, Frans Wiering.

The Computer Music Tutorial is a comprehensive text and reference that covers all aspects of computer music, including digital audio, synthesis techniques, signal processing, musical input devices, performance software, editing systems, algorithmic composition, MIDI, synthesizer architecture, system interconnection, and psychoacoustics. A special effort has been made to impart an appreciation for the rich history behind current activities in the field.Profusely illustrated and exhaustively referenced and cross-referenced, The Computer Music Tutorial provides a step-by-step introduction to the entire field of computer music techniques. Written for nontechnical as well as technical readers, it uses hundreds of charts, diagrams, screen images, and photographs as well as clear explanations to present basic concepts and terms. Mathematical notation and program code examples are used only when absolutely necessary. Explanations are not tied to any specific software or hardware.Curtis Roads has served as editor-in-chief of Computer Music Journal for more than a decade and is a recognized authority in the field. The material in this book was compiled and refined over a period of several years of teaching in classes at Harvard University, Oberlin Conservatory, the University of Naples, IRCAM, Les Ateliers UPIC, and in seminars and workshops in North America, Europe, and Asia.

Machine Models of Music brings together representative models ranging from Mozart's "Musical Dice Game" to a classic article by Marvin Minsky and current research to illustrate the rich impact that artificial intelligence has had on the understanding and composition of traditional music and to demonstrate the ways in which music can push the boundaries of traditional Al research.

Major sections of the book take up pioneering research in generate-and-test composition (Lejaren Hiller, Barry Brooks, Jr., Stanley Gill); composition parsing (Allen Forte, Herbert Simon, Terry Winograd); heuristic composition (John Rothgeb, James Moorer, Steven Smoliar); generative grammars (Otto Laske, Gary Rader, Johan Sundberg, Fred Lerdahl); alternative theories (Marvin Minsky, James Meehan); composition tools (Charles Ames, Kemal Ebcioglu, David Cope, C. Fry); and new directions (David Levitt, Christopher Longuet-Higgins, Jamshed Bharucha, Stephan Schwanauer).

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