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Programming and Programming Languages

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Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy
Edited by Rishab Ghosh

Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity—with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project—and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.

After completing this self-contained course on server-based Internet applications software, students who start with only the knowledge of how to write and debug a computer program will have learned how to build web-based applications on the scale of Amazon.com. Unlike the desktop applications that most students have already learned to build, server-based applications have multiple simultaneous users. This fact, coupled with the unreliability of networks, gives rise to the problems of concurrency and transactions, which students learn to manage by using the relational database system.

The goal of The Reasoned Schemer is to help the functional programmer think logically and the logic programmer think functionally. The authors of The Reasoned Schemer believe that logic programming is a natural extension of functional programming, and they demonstrate this by extending the functional language Scheme with logical constructs—thereby combining the benefits of both styles. The extension encapsulates most of the ideas in the logic programming language Prolog.

The ubiquity of combinatorial optimization problems in our society is illustrated by the novel application areas for optimization technology, which range from supply chain management to sports tournament scheduling. Over the last two decades, constraint programming has emerged as a fundamental methodology to solve a variety of combinatorial problems, and rich constraint programming languages have been developed for expressing and combining constraints and specifying search procedures at a high level of abstraction.

This concise guide to the Java programming language, version 5.0, offers a quick reference for the reader who wants to know the language in greater detail than that provided by the standard text or language reference book. It presents the entire Java programming language and essential parts of the class libraries—the collection classes and the input-output classes.

Building a Modern Computer from First Principles

In the early days of computer science, the interactions of hardware, software, compilers, and operating system were simple enough to allow students to see an overall picture of how computers worked. With the increasing complexity of computer technology and the resulting specialization of knowledge, such clarity is often lost. Unlike other texts that cover only one aspect of the field, The Elements of Computing Systems gives students an integrated and rigorous picture of applied computer science, as its comes to play in the construction of a simple yet powerful computer system.

The study of type systems for programming languages now touches many areas of computer science, from language design and implementation to software engineering, network security, databases, and analysis of concurrent and distributed systems. This book offers accessible introductions to key ideas in the field, with contributions by experts on each topic.

First Edition

C# is an object-oriented programming language that is similar to the Java programming language in many respects but more comprehensive and different in most details. This book gives a concise description of C#. It is intended as a guide for readers who know Java and want to learn C# and as a quick reference for anyone who wants to know C# in more detail than that provided by a standard textbook. The final chapter of C# Precisely summarizes the differences between C# and Java.

productively combines elements of programming languages, environments, logic, and inductive inference to produce effective debugging aids. Its use of the PROLOG language provides an efficient implementation of the debugging algorithms.

This book addresses a fundamental software engineering issue, applying formal techniques and rigorous analysis to a practical problem of great current interest: the incorporation of language-specific knowledge in interactive programming environments. It makes a basic contribution in this area by proposing an attribute-grammar framework for incremental semantic analysis and establishing its algorithmic foundations. The results are theoretically important while having immediate practical utility for implementing environment-generating systems.

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