First published 2 September 2013
Multiplicity of Interpretation in an Asynchronous Updating Rule: Emergence of Collective Cognition
Many kinds of interactions among individuals construct collective animal behavior, but how to apply this multiplicity of interactions is often unclear when constructing models. We propose multiplicity of interaction in a simple model constructed from three factors: asynchronous updating, learning site patterns, and agent anticipation. We found that the first two contribute to an efficient searching strategy, and that adding agent anticipation enables sign making (avoidance) in heterogeneous environments. Our model surprisingly suggests that searching strategies and territorial behavior such as boundary marking—seemingly contradicting behaviors—emerge from two aspects of our simple interaction rule. We discuss the possibility of collective cognition in animals when heterogeneous environments change. Our study suggests that multiplicity of interaction in asynchronous updating is very important for understanding many aspects of emergent collective behavior in animals.