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Gene M. Grossman

Gene M. Grossman is Jacob Viner Professor of International Economics and Director of the International Economics Section at Princeton University.

Titles by This Author

This landmark theoretical book is about the mechanisms by which special interest groups affect policy in modern democracies. Defining a special interest group as any organization that takes action on behalf of an identifiable group of voters, Gene Grossman and Elhanan Helpman ask: How do special interest groups derive their power and influence? What determines the extent to which they are able to affect policy outcomes? What happens when groups with differing objectives compete for influence?

The authors develop important theoretical tools for studying the interactions among voters, interest groups, and politicians. They assume that individuals, groups, and parties act in their own self-interest and that political outcomes can be identified with the game-theoretic concept of an equilibrium. Throughout, they progress from the simple to the more complex. When analyzing campaign giving, for example, they begin with a model of a single interest group and a single, incumbent policy maker. They proceed to add additional interest groups, a legislature with several independent politicians, and electoral competition between rival political parties. The book is organized in three parts. Part I focuses on voting and elections. Part II examines the use of information as a tool for political influence. Part III deals with campaign contributions, which interest groups may use either to influence policy makers' positions and actions or to help preferred candidates to win election.

Traditional growth theory emphasizes the incentives for capital accumulation rather than technological progress; innovation is treated as an exogenous process or a byproduct of investment in machinery and equipment. Grossman and Helpman develop a unique approach in which innovation is viewed as a deliberate outgrowth of investments in industrial research by forward-looking, profit-seeking agents. They also devote attention to the place of international trade in the growth process, including the transmission of innovations from the industrial economies to the LDCs.

Grossman and Helpman provide a useful overview of recent analyses of innovation and growth, enriching and expanding the available formal theory in a number of important ways. They develop straightforward theoretical models that treat innovation as the outgrowth of costly investments in industrial research. Such investments respond to profit opportunities, which reflect competitive conditions in national and international product markets. Since firms in different countries race to bring out new products, growth processes are linked by international technological competition.

An important aspect of Grossman and Helpman's study, even in relation to recent similar work on endogenous growth, is that they focus on the growth process of a country that operates in a global economy. They allow comparative advantage to be created endogenously in the industrial research laboratory but look at the dynamic determinants in the pattern of trade and the interactions between trade and growth. One chapter is devoted entirely to how economic integration affects a country's innovation and growth, while another studies the effects of national policies in an international environment. The final two chapters take up interaction between the processes of innovation in the industrialized North and imitation in the middle income South.

Titles by This Editor

Papers in Honor of Jagdish Bhagwati

This collection of papers by former students and colleagues celebrates the profound impact that Jagdish Bhagwati has had on the field of international economics over the past three decades. Bhagwati, who is the Arthur Lehman Professor of Economics at Columbia University, has made pathbreaking contributions to the theory of international trade and commercial policy, including immiserizing growth, domestic distortions, economic development, and political economy. His success and influence as a teacher and mentor is widely recognized among students at both MIT and Columbia, and as founder of the Journal of International Economics, he has encouraged research on many questions of theoretical and policy relevance. The political economy of trade policy, Bhagwati's most recent area of interest, is the theme of this collection which addresses salient topics including market distortions, income distribution, and the political process of policy-making.

Sections and Contributors:

- Market Distortions. T. N. Srinivasan. Paul A. Samuelson. Paul R. Krugman.

- Trade and Income Distribution. Douglas A. Irwin. Richard A. Brecher and Ehsan U. Choudri. Robert C. Feenstra and Gordon H. Hanson. Earl L. Grinols.

- Perspectives on Political Economy. Robert E. Baldwin. Peter Diamond.

- Models of Political Economy and Trade. Gene M. Grossman and Elhana Helpman. John Douglas Wilson. B. Peter Rosendorff. Arvind Panagariya and Ronald Findlay.

The last decade has seen an important extension of the theory of international trade to include imperfectly competitive market structures. This book collects 19 of the most influential articles on trade with imperfect competition, providing ready access to current research by top-level economists.

Following an introduction. by Grossman that surveys the literature, the readings cover such important topics as the causes and consequences of intraindustry trade, the effects of tariffs and quantitative restrictions in oligopolistic settings, the welfare consequences of strategic trade policies, the raison d'ĂȘtre for multinational corporations, the determinants of innovation, and the interaction between technological progress and trade.

The recent work on trade incorporating imperfect competition can help to explain the high volume of intraindustry trade between similarly endowed countries and can account for the increasing importance of multinational corporations in the conduct of international trade. It can predict the emergence of cross-country technology gaps and can help to identify the determinants of dynamic comparative advantage. The explorations of trade with imperfect competition have also deepened substantially our understanding of the costs and benefits of trade policy. We now know why governments may be motivated to assist their national firms in global oligopolistic competitions, and we also know the limitations of the arguments in support of strategic trade policies.

Gene M. Grossman is Professor of Economics and International Affairs at Princeton University.

Contributors: Richard E. Baldwin, James A. Brander, Avinash K. Dixit, Jonathan Eaton, Wilfred J. Ethier, Gene M. Grossman, Elhanan Helpman, Kala Krishna, Paul R. Krugman, James R. Markusen, Victor Norman, Luis A. Rivera-Batiz, Paul M. Romer, Barbara J. Spencer, Anthony J. Venables Shmuel Ben Zvi.

Wealth and Poverty

Essays in Development Economics collects many of Jagdish Bhagwati's writings that have established him as a major postwar developmental economist. The selection is diverse and highlights the close relationship and mutual reinforcement in Bhagwati's research between economic theory, empirical validation, and policy debate.Volume I, Wealth and Poverty, addresses domestic or internal development problems. Its 22 essays are divided into five parts covering Development Theory and Strategy; Economic Structure: Regularities and Explanations; Class Structure, Poverty, and Redistrbution; Technology and Employment; and Eminent Economists: Sketches and Commentary.Volume 2, Dependence and Interdependence, deals with international or external problems and its 20 essays are in four parts covering North-South Issues; Developmental Strategy: Import Substitution versus Export Promotion; Foreign Assistance; and International Migration and Investment.Within each volume, the essays are topically grouped and preceded by brief introductions by the author discussing his current views of the nature of the contributions and the relationship among them. In several cases, previously unpublished papers or postscripts to previously published papers have been added to round out the sections.Jagdish N. Bhagwati is Arthur Lehman Professor of Economics and Director of the International Economics Research Center at Columbia University. Essays in Development Economics, in conjunction with the two-volume work, Essays in International Economic Theory (edited by Robert C. Feenstra, MIT Press), constitute a comprehensive selection of Bhagwati's influential and important contributions to the theory and policy of development and of international trade. Gene M. Grossman is Assistant Professor of Economics and International Affairs, Princeton University.

Dependence and Interdependence

Essays in Development Economics collects many of Jagdish Bhagwati's writings that have established him as a major postwar developmental economist. The selection is diverse and highlights the close relationship and mutual reinforcement in Bhagwati's research between economic theory, empirical validation, and policy debate.Volume I, Wealth and Poverty, addresses domestic or internal development problems. Its 22 essays are divided into five parts covering Development Theory and Strategy; Economic Structure: Regularities and Explanations; Class Structure, Poverty, and Redistrbution; Technology and Employment; and Eminent Economists: Sketches and Commentary.Volume 2, Dependence and Interdependence, deals with international or external problems and its 20 essays are in four parts covering North-South Issues; Developmental Strategy: Import Substitution versus Export Promotion; Foreign Assistance; and International Migration and Investment.Within each volume, the essays are topically grouped and preceded by brief introductions by the author discussing his current views of the nature of the contributions and the relationship among them. In several cases, previously unpublished papers or postscripts to previously published papers have been added to round out the sections.Jagdish N. Bhagwati is Arthur Lehman Professor of Economics and Director of the International Economics Research Center at Columbia University. Essays in Development Economics, in conjunction with the two-volume work, Essays in International Economic Theory (edited by Robert C. Feenstra, MIT Press), constitute a comprehensive selection of Bhagwati's influential and important contributions to the theory and policy of development and of international trade. Gene M. Grossman is Assistant Professor of Economics and International Affairs, Princeton University.