For millennia, "from Aristotle to almost yesterday," the great problems of philosophy have all been about people: questions of epistemology and philosophy of mind have concerned human capacities and limitations. Still, say the editors of Thinking about Android Epistemology, there should be theories about other sorts of minds, other ways that physical systems can be organized to produce knowledge and competence.
Computerized "expert systems" are among the best-known applications of artificial intelligence. But what is expertise? The nature of knowledge and expertise, and their relation to context, is the focus of active discussion and controversy among psychologists, philosophers, computer scientists, and other cognitive scientists.