Until the mid-1980s, AI researchers assumed that an intelligent system doing high-level reasoning was necessary for the coupling of perception and action. In this traditional model, cognition mediates between perception and plans of action. Realizing that this core AI, as it was known, was illusory, Rodney A. Brooks turned the field of AI on its head by introducing the behavior-based approach to robotics. The cornerstone of behavior-based robotics is the realization that the coupling of perception and action gives rise to all the power of intelligence and that cognition is only in the eye of an observer. Behavior-based robotics has been the basis of successful applications in entertainment, service industries, agriculture, mining, and the home. It has given rise to both autonomous mobile robots and more recent humanoid robots such as Brooks' Cog.
This book represents Brooks' initial formulation of and contributions to the development of the behavior-based approach to robotics. It presents all of the key philosophical and technical ideas that put this "bottom-up" approach at the forefront of current research in not only AI but all of cognitive science.
July 6-8, 1994 · the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The field of artificial life has recently emerged through the interaction of research in biology, physics, parallel computing, artificial intelligence, and complex adaptive systems. The goal is to understand, through synthetic experiments, the organizational principles underlying the dynamics (usually the nonlinear dynamics) of living systems. This book brings together contributions to the Fourth Artificial Life Workshop, held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the summer of 1994.
- Self-organization and emergent functionality. - Definitions of life. - Origin of life. - Self-reproduction. - Computer viruses. - Synthesis of "the living state." - Evolution and population genetics. - Coevolution and ecological dynamics. - Growth, development, and differentiation. - Organization and behavior of social and colonial organisms. - Animal behavior. - Global and local ecosystems and their intersections. - Autonomous agents (mobile robots and software agents). - Collective intelligence ("swarm" intelligence). - Theoretical biology. - Philosophical issues in A-life (from ontology to ethics). - Formalisms and tools for A-life research. - Guidelines and safeguards for the practice of A-life.