For many years it was fashionable to treat macroeconomics and microeconomics as separate subjects without looking too deeply at the relationship between the two. But in the 1970s there occurred an episode of high inflation and high unemployment, which was inconsistent with orthodox theory. As a result, macroeconomists began to pay much greater attention to the microfoundations of their subject.
The monetary side of domestic and international economic policy has generated increasingly intense debate and concern within and among the major industrial countries over the last several years. Recently, the Bank of Japan's Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies brought together leading academics and prominent economists of central banks and international organizations to analyze and discuss the key problems and issues of monetary policy of developed countries.