This report on fabric and garment flammability represents a synthesis and overview of research conducted by four independent labs, sponsored jointly by the Government Industry Research Committee on Flammable Fabrics and by the Office of Flammable Fabrics of the National Bureau of Standards. It is intended as a reference document for fiber and textile technologists concerned with this problem. The laboratories taking part in this cooperative program were the Factory Mutual Research Corporation; teh School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology; the Harris Research Laboratories Department, Gillette Research Institute; and the Fuels Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT. The overview group, which compiled and integrated the results and produced this book, was affiliated with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT.
Three specific aspects of the flammability problem are treated here: fabric ignition, the spreading of flames, and burn injury to the human skin. In addition, an entire chapter is devoted to the characterization of fabric properties related to flammability.
The ignition phenomenon involves the complex processes of heat transfer, thermal degradation, fluid mechanics and chemical kinetics. Thermoplastic behavior compounds this complexity when synthetic fabrics are involved. The treatment of ignition outlined in this work, is essentially physical, omitting considerations of chemical kinetics and focusing on the prediction of ignition time of fabrics under known conditions of thermal exposure.
Flame propagation is discussed as a continuing ignition process. Only those aspects of the flame propagation phenomenon, both in fabric strips and in garments, that are accessible through an experimental approach are dealt with.
Research on thermal burns of the human body also involves considerations of heat transfer to and thermal decomposition of the skin. In this phase of the study, attempts are made to predict depth and burn damage on the basis of thermal history at the skin surface. Extensive experimental results are reported, which provide insight into the mode and extent of heat transfer from burning fabrics and garments to skin simulants.
This thesaurus provides an indispensable tool in the area of textile information storage and retrieval. At present there is no comparable reference work in the field. It contains terms relating to all segments of the textile industrial complex from fiber producer to machinery maker to consumer goods testing laboratories, and is intended to provide a controlled vocabulary for all textile terms from the chemical stage to the marketing end.
It will provide a quick and valuable reference guide to users of textile research and engineering literature and provide a source of specialized and accurate terminology for authors, editors, indexers, information specialists, and librarians, as well as inventors and patent lawyers.
The focal point of this compilation of the language and literature of textiles was the textile mill and/or finishing plant, i.e., the "core" of the industry. The details of terminology were determined from the viewpoint of this manufacturing nucleus.
The thesaurus contains 8000 key words and 72;000 relationships. Its coverage will serve the needs from fiber producer, textile manufacturer and finisher, distributor of clothing, producer of textile auxiliaries and dyes, the maker of textile machinery, and materials-testing governmental laboratories, to retailing organizations and consumer groups.
The work is in computer printout form and was developed and prepared as part of the textile information program conducted in the Fibers and Polymers Division, M.I.T., under sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Commerce. It has already been translated into French and the Nordic languages and will fill the growing need for a guide to the international literature of textile materials and processes.