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Hardcover | Out of Print | 408 pp. | 6 x 9 in | illus. | November 2007 | ISBN: 9780262113137
Paperback | Out of Print | 408 pp. | 6 x 9 in | illus. | November 2007 | ISBN: 9780262612203
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American Environmental Policy, 1990–2006

Beyond Gridlock


The “golden era” of American environmental lawmaking, between 1964 and 1980, saw twenty-two pieces of major environmental legislation (including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act) passed by bipartisan majorities in Congress and signed into law by presidents of both parties. But since then environmental issues have divided the parties and engendered bitter interest-group politics, with most new proposals blocked by legislative gridlock. In this book, Christopher McGrory Klyza and David Sousa argue that this longstanding legislative stalemate at the national level has forced environmental policymaking onto other pathways, both inside and outside government. Despite the congressional impasse, they write, environmental policymaking today is vibrant and complex—although the results fall short of what is needed in the years ahead. Klyza and Sousa identify and analyze five alternative policy paths, which they illustrate with case studies: “appropriations politics” in Congress; executive authority, including the rulemaking process; the role of the courts, whose role in environmental policymaking has grown in the era of legislative gridlock; “next-generation” collaborative experiments (which, the authors argue, should be seen as an important approach but not a panacea); and policymaking at the state level. Their comprehensive analysis of the state of environmental policymaking since 1990 shows that although legislative gridlock is unlikely to dissipate anytime soon, the nation continues to move in the direction favored by environmentalists, largely because of the policy legacies of the 1960s and 1970s that have created an enduring “green state” rooted in statutes, bureaucratic routines, and public expectations.

About the Authors

Christopher McGrory Klyza is Robert ’35 and Helen ’38 Stafford Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Political Science and Environmental Studies at Middlebury College.

David J. Sousa is Professor in the Department of Politics and Government at the University of Puget Sound.


“The book by Klyza & Sousa can be judged as an outstanding synthesis of knowledge on the development of the US environmental policy during the past decade and a half.”—D.A. Ruban Zentralblatt, Geologie und Palaontologie


“Quite simply, this is the best book on environmental politics and American politics I have read in some time.”
Robert Duffy, Department of Political Science, Colorado State University
“This book is an original and useful contribution to the field of environmental politics and policy. It is a well organized and clearly written work that I would recommend to academics, students, policy makers, and anyone interested in environmental policy.”
Robert Keiter, Wallace Stegner Professor of Law, Director, Wallace Stegner Center for Land, Resources and the Environment, University of Utah