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Hardcover | $34.00 X | £27.95 | 350 pp. | 7 x 9 in | 30 b&w illus. | April 2016 | ISBN: 9780262034555
eBook | $24.00 X | May 2016 | ISBN: 9780262335317
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Computational Models of Referring

A Study in Cognitive Science


To communicate, speakers need to make it clear what they are talking about. The act of referring, which anchors words to things, is a fundamental aspect of language. In this book, Kees van Deemter shows that computational models of reference offer attractive tools for capturing the complexity of referring. Indeed, the models van Deemter presents cover many issues beyond the basic idea of referring to an object, including reference to sets, approximate descriptions, descriptions produced under uncertainty concerning the hearer’s knowledge, and descriptions that aim to inform or influence the hearer.

The book, which can be read as a case study in cognitive science, draws on perspectives from across the cognitive sciences, including philosophy, experimental psychology, formal logic, and computer science. Van Deemter advocates a combination of computational modeling and careful experimentation as the preferred method for expanding these insights. He then shows this method in action, covering a range of algorithms and a variety of methods for testing them. He shows that the method allows us to model logically complicated referring expressions, and demonstrates how we can gain an understanding of reference in situations where the speaker’s knowledge is difficult to assess or where the referent resists exact definition. Finally, he proposes a program of research that addresses the open questions that remain in this area, arguing that this program can significantly enhance our understanding of human communication.

About the Author

Kees van Deemter is Professor and Chair in Computing Science at the University of Aberdeen and the author of Not Exactly: In Praise of Vagueness.


“Kees van Deemter’s book is wonderfully comprehensive in two dimensions: it provides a coherent discussion of a broad range of referential phenomena often discussed only in isolation, and it artfully combines perspectives on these phenomena from the full range of disciplines that have something to contribute. The book will become the go-to guide for anyone wanting to explore computational models of reference.”
Robert Dale, Chief Technology Officer, Arria NLG; author of Generating Referring Expressions
“An interesting, useful, and very informative book on computational modeling of how humans use language to refer, supported by perspectives from experimental psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence.”
Jeanette Gundel, Professor of Linguistics, University of Minnesota
“Van Deemter's entertaining and narrative style makes this book a rare computational-linguistic page-turner. It also contains a very lucid summary of Clark and Marshall's 1981 paper on definite reference. Every cognitive scientist interested in language and communication should read this book.”
J. P. de Ruiter, Chair of Psycholinguistics, Bielefeld University