Computerized "expert systems" are among the best-known applications of artificial intelligence. But what is expertise? The nature of knowledge and expertise, and their relation to context, is the focus of active discussion and controversy among psychologists, philosophers, computer scientists, and other cognitive scientists. The questions reach to the very foundations of cognitive theory. The twenty-three original essay in this volume discuss the essential nature of expert knowledge, as well as such questions as how "expertise" differs from mere "knowledge," the relation between the individual and group processes involved in knowledge in general and expertise in particular, the social and other contexts of expertise, how expertise can be assessed, and the relation between human and computer expertise.
Contributors N. M. Agnew, D. Bertram, S. Bringsjord, N. Charness, W. Clancey, H. M. Collins, T. M. Converse, R. L. Coulson, D. DuBois, K. A. Ericsson, P. J. Feltovich, K. M. Ford, N. D. Geddes, K. J. Hammond, C. C. Hayes, P. J. Hayes, H. Hexmoor, C. T. Kulik, H. E. Kyburg, M. LaFrance, F. J. Lerch, G. F. Luger, M. Miller, M. Minsky, K. O'Hara, A. L. Patalano, V. L. Patel, D. Perlis, M. J. Prietula, M. F. Ramoni, A. T. Rappaport, C. M. Seifert, N. Shadbolt, V. L. Shalin, S. C. Shapiro, R. J. Spiro, E. W. Stein, C. R. Stern, R. J. Sternberg, M. A. Szczepkowski, C. M. Zeitz