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Hardcover | Out of Print | 320 pp. | 6 x 9 in | April 2001 | ISBN: 9780262122337
Paperback | $28.95 Trade | £23.95 | 320 pp. | 6 x 9 in | February 2002 | ISBN: 9780262621632
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I of the Vortex

From Neurons to Self


In I of the Vortex, Rodolfo Llinas, a founding father of modern brain science, presents an original view of the evolution and nature of mind. According to Llinas, the "mindness state" evolved to allow predictive interactions between mobile creatures and their environment. He illustrates the early evolution of mind through a primitive animal called the "sea squirt." The mobile larval form has a brainlike ganglion that receives sensory information about the surrounding environment. As an adult, the sea squirt attaches itself to a stationary object and then digests most of its own brain. This suggests that the nervous system evolved to allow active movement in animals. To move through the environment safely, a creature must anticipate the outcome of each movement on the basis of incoming sensory data. Thus the capacity to predict is most likely the ultimate brain function. One could even say that Self is the centralization of prediction.

At the heart of Llinas's theory is the concept of oscillation. Many neurons possess electrical activity, manifested as oscillating variations in the minute voltages across the cell membrane. On the crests of these oscillations occur larger electrical events that are the basis for neuron-to-neuron communication. Like cicadas chirping in unison, a group of neurons oscillating in phase can resonate with a distant group of neurons. This simultaneity of neuronal activity is the neurobiological root of cognition. Although the internal state that we call the mind is guided by the senses, it is also generated by the oscillations within the brain. Thus, in a certain sense, one could say that reality is not all "out there," but is a kind of virtual reality.

About the Author

Rodolfo R. Llinás is the Thomas and Susanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the Department of Physiology and Neuroscience at the New York University School of Medicine.


“Anyone interested in new ways of thinking about organization of the brain would do well to give it a look.”—Ilya Farber, Nature
I of the Vortex is an exciting book, full of imagination, fit for the well-educated lay reader.”—Edgar Garcia-Rill, Forum
“Rodolfo Llinas...offers this compelling synthesis of neurology, from the function of the neuron to the workings of the mind.”—Science Books & Films


“Using a lively, discursive writing style, Llinas argues that the self is the center of prediction and arises in the motor systems of the brain. A myriad of neuroscience and comparative physiology facts support the fascinating and provocative hypothesis of this book.”
J. Allan Hobson, Director, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Harvard Medical School