The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments
Because environmental problems do not respect borders, their solutions often require international cooperation and agreements. The contributors to this book examine how international environmental agreements are put into practice. Their main concern is effectiveness—the degree to which such agreements lead to changes in behavior that help to solve environmental problems. Their focus is on implementation—the process that turns commitments into action, at both domestic and international levels. Implementation is the key to effectiveness because these agreements aim to constrain not just governments but a wide array of actors, including individuals, firms, and agencies whose behavior does not change simply because governments have made international commitments.
The book is divided into two parts. Part I looks at international systems for implementation review, through which parties share information, review performance, handle noncompliance, and adjust commitments. Part II looks at implementation at the national level, with particular attention to participation by governmental and nongovernmental actors and to problems in states with economies in transition. The book includes fourteen case studies that cover eight major areas of international environmental regulation: conservation and preservation of fauna and flora, stratospheric ozone depletion, pollution in the Baltic Sea, pollution in the North Sea, trade in hazardous chemicals and pesticides, air pollution in Europe, whaling, and marine dumping of nuclear waste.
Steinar Andresen, Juan Carlos di Primio, Owen Greene, Ronnie Hjorth, Vladimir Kotov, John Lanchbery, Elena Nikitina, Kal Raustiala, Alexei Roginko, Jon Birger Skjærseth, Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Olav Schram Stokke, David G. Victor, Jørgen Wettestad.Copublished with theInternational Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
About the Editors
David G. Victor has a Ph.D. in Political Sciencefrom MIT and received his B.A. from Harvard University in 1987. He is Director of the Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, where his research focuses on electricity and gas markets, energy services for the poor, and international environmental law. He teaches regulation at Stanford Law School.
Gene Skolnikoff is Professor of Political Science Emeritus at the Massachusetts Insitute of Technology. Professor Skolnikoff has focused his research and teaching interests in the field of science and public policy, especially the interaction of science and technology with international affairs. This interest has covered a wide range of international subjects, including recent studies in global climate change and proliferation. He studied electrical engineering at MIT, followed by politics and economics at Oxford University on a Rhodes Scholarship, and political science at MIT once again. He has held a variety of posts, including serving on the White House staff in the Office of the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology under Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, and he played an active role as Senior Consultant to the White House Science Office under President Carter.
—Robert O. Keohane, Department of Political Science, Duke University
—Thomas C. Schelling, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland