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Hardcover | Out of Print | 420 pp. | 6 x 9 in | April 1993 | ISBN: 9780262132886
Paperback | $38.00 X | £31.95 | 420 pp. | 6 x 9 in | March 1995 | ISBN: 9780262631624
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White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice


Ruth Millikan's extended argument for a biological view of the study of cognition in Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories caught the attention of the philosophical community. Universally regarded as an important, even brilliant, work, its complexity and dense presentation made it difficult to plumb. This collection of essays serves both as an introduction to that much discussed volume and as an extension and application of Millikan's central and controversial themes, especially in the philosophy of psychology.

The title essay, referring to the White Queen's practice of exercising her mind by believing impossible things, discusses meaning rationalism and argues that rationality is not in the head, indeed, that there is no legitimate interpretation under which logical possibility and necessity are known a priori. Nor are there any laws of rational psychology. Rationality is not a lawful occurrence but a biological norm that is effected in an integrated head-world system under biologically ideal conditions.

In other essays, Millikan clarifies her views on the nature of mental representation, explores whether human thought is a product of natural selection, examines the nature of behavior as studied by the behavioral sciences, and discusses the issues of individualism in psychology, psychological explanation, indexicality in thought, what knowledge is, and the realism/antirealism debate.

About the Author

Ruth Garrett Millikan is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the University of Connecticut. She is the author of Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories (MIT Press, 1984) and White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice (MIT Press, 1995) and On Clear and Confused Ideas.


“This is how philosophy of psychology should be done! Bold, imaginative, tough, Millikan is a juggernaut rolling and rollicking through the thickets ofcontemporary debate, clearing out new space, letting us see the shape of these problems better than ever before.”
Daniel Dennett , Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University