Eugene B. Skolnikoff

Eugene Skolnikoff is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at MIT and a local affiliate at CES at Harvard University.

  • The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments

    The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments

    Theory and Practice

    David G. Victor, Kal Raustiala, and Eugene B. Skolnikoff

    Because environmental problems do not respect borders, their solutions often require international cooperation and agreements. The contributors to this book examine how international environmental agreements are put into practice. Their main concern is effectiveness—the degree to which such agreements lead to changes in behavior that help to solve environmental problems. Their focus is on implementation—the process that turns commitments into action, at both domestic and international levels. Implementation is the key to effectiveness because these agreements aim to constrain not just governments but a wide array of actors, including individuals, firms, and agencies whose behavior does not change simply because governments have made international commitments.

    The book is divided into two parts. Part I looks at international systems for implementation review, through which parties share information, review performance, handle noncompliance, and adjust commitments. Part II looks at implementation at the national level, with particular attention to participation by governmental and nongovernmental actors and to problems in states with economies in transition. The book includes fourteen case studies that cover eight major areas of international environmental regulation: conservation and preservation of fauna and flora, stratospheric ozone depletion, pollution in the Baltic Sea, pollution in the North Sea, trade in hazardous chemicals and pesticides, air pollution in Europe, whaling, and marine dumping of nuclear waste.

    Contributors Steinar Andresen, Juan Carlos di Primio, Owen Greene, Ronnie Hjorth, Vladimir Kotov, John Lanchbery, Elena Nikitina, Kal Raustiala, Alexei Roginko, Jon Birger Skjærseth, Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Olav Schram Stokke, David G. Victor, Jørgen Wettestad.Copublished with theInternational Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

    • Hardcover $100.00
    • Paperback $55.00
  • Science, Technology, and American Foreign Policy

    Science, Technology, and American Foreign Policy

    Eugene B. Skolnikoff

    In an age when science and technology are becoming the popular yardsticks for measuring progress or prestige in international affairs, it is strange indeed that little literature relevant to the role of science in relation to foreign policy exists. That void is filled, and admirably so, by this book—a timely articulation of a relationship hitherto superficially accepted but usually denied in practice, because it is only vaguely understood.

    Skolnikoff shows the breadth of the relationship and the character of the interaction between the scientific and other elements of major issues of foreign affairs. Most important, he shows how the uncertainties inherent in judgments about science and technology are affected by political factors, and reciprocally, how political factors depend on scientific and technological factors figure prominently, real integration of science and technology in the policy process is essential. In this respect, the existing mechanisms of the U.S. Government, particularly in the Department of State, are demonstrated to be wanting.

    To make these and other points, such as the use of science and technology as new tools of policy, the book discusses in turn the major areas of policy—arms and arms control, space, atomic energy, bilateral relations, international organizations and the like—using a combined analytical and case study approach. The discussion develops the nature of the technical elements of policy issues and points out the requirements posed for the policy process. Modifications of existing methods for providing scientific inputs in foreign affairs are offered. In addition, the book offers for the first time a history of the science advisory mechanisms for foreign policy in the White House and Department of State. A final chapter demonstrates the meaning of continuing technological advances for some of the basic assumptions: for example, the changed significance of national freedom of action, the inviolability of national borders, the possibility of having to suppress or control technology, and the inevitable growth of decision making on an international scale.

    Science, Technology, and American Foreign Policy is certain to hold the attention of scholar and policy maker alike, for it is the first book to treat this subject from a policy vantage point. This assures the best kind of generality, for it allows an over-all view of not one but the spectrum of scientific issues that are constantly meeting and interacting with the political demands posed by an effective international policy.

    • Hardcover $12.50
    • Paperback $42.00