Gary Clyde Hufbauer

Gary Clyde Hufbauer is a Senior Fellow at the Institute and former Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Trade and Investment Policy.

  • The Next International Trade Negotiations

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott

    This study explores the substantive issues that should be addressed in the new trade talks, and discusses how those issues could best facilitate successful negotiations.

    The open world trading system, which has buttressed postwar prosperity and promoted harmony among nations, is under severe strain. Protectionist pressures and actions are rising in most countries, including the United States, and are eroding support for the trade rules embodied in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Some trading nations are beginning to explore the prospects for major new negotiations to deal with these problems and to counter the trend toward further controls. This study explores the substantive issues that should be addressed in the new trade talks, and discusses how those issues could best facilitate successful negotiations. It reviews basic conceptual issues that underlie the GATT system, and includes a strategy for dealing with specific trade problems as well as procedural reforms necessary to make the GATT work better. Particular attention is paid to the structural adjustment needs of industry and agriculture, and to integrating new areas such as services and investment more fully into the GATT system. Now available directly from: IIE11 Dupont Circle, NWWashington, DC 20036 Tel: (202) 328-9000

    • Paperback $10.00
  • Economic Sanctions Reconsidered

    History and Current Policy

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer

    The book analyzes why sanctions are deployed, what sanctions can achieve, and the costs to both target and sender countries.

    Now available directly from: IIE11 Dupont Circle, NWWashington, DC 20036Tel: (202) 328-9000Economic sanctions have become an increasingly central tool of United States foreign policy. Recently, doubts have been raised-both at home and abroad-as to whether sanctions are effective in meeting their avowed foreign policy objectives, or even their domestic policy goals. These concerns, influenced primarily by recent experience with the Soviet grain embargo and pipeline sanctions, have rekindled congressional debate on the use of economic sanctions and have spawned legislative proposals to constrict recourse to such measures in the future.To address these proposals, this book examines almost a hundred cases where sanctions have been used since World War I, Among them are the League of Nations against Italy in 1935, the Western Alliance against Germany and Japan in the Second World War, the USSR against Yugoslavia in 1948-1955, the United Nations, against Rhodesia and South Africa, the United States against Britain and France over the Suez Canal crisis in 1956, the Arab nations of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries against the United States in 1973, and the recent round of cases mounted by the United States against the Soviet Union.The book analyzes why sanctions are deployed, what sanctions can achieve, and the costs to both target and sender countries. It then applies lessons from historical experience to the current policy debate, and recommends guidelines for the future use of economic sanctions in pursuit of foreign policy objectives.

    • Hardcover $45.00
  • Reforming Trade Adjustment Policy

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer

    This monograph assesses the prospects for more effective techniques of promoting adjustment of both industry and labor to changes in trade flows, proposes new means of financing the program, and considers whether such an effort could help support a more constructive United States trade policy, than the one that was in effect from 1962 to 1981.

    Now available directly from: IIE11 Dupont Circle, NWWashington, DC 20036 Tel: (202) 328-9000 This monograph assesses the prospects for more effective techniques of promoting adjustment of both industry and labor to changes in trade flows, proposes new means of financing the program, and considers whether such an effort could help support a more constructive United States trade policy, than the one that was in effect from 1962 to 1981.

    • Paperback $10.00
  • Subsidies in International Trade

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Joanna Shelton-Erb

    This book seeks to explain and analyze both the concepts underlying the subsidy problem and the most important of the issues involved.

    Now available directly from: IIE11 Dupont Circle, NWWashington, DC 20036 Tel: (202) 328-9000 Subsidies raise some of the most important and difficult issues of contemporary international economic relations. They are increasingly viewed as a key source of distortions to trade and investment flows and, while important initial steps have been made to bring them under international control, most governments view these efforts as an intrusion into their national sovereignty, and sharp differences remain concerning the nature and legitimacy of various subsidy practices. This book seeks to explain and analyze both the concepts underlying the subsidy problem and the most important of the issues involved. It discusses the various standards used to determine the existence and impact of subsidies in both agricultural and industrial trade, focusing in particular on the highly contentious problems of export credits, tax incentives, and the treatment of developing countries. One section of the book covers domestic subsidies, defining and relating them to international trade and offering proposals on how to deal with them constructively. The book concludes with a series of proposals for improving the ability of the international trading system to deal with problems posed by subsidies. These include more extensive (and perhaps altered) use of countervailing duties, the new concept of countervailing subsidies, and other possible means of handling third country markets. Changes in the existing international regime and in domestic legal structures are recommended to limit the adverse economic and political effects of subsidy practices.

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer is a Senior Fellow at the Institute and former Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Trade and Investment Policy. Joanna Shelton-Erb is an international economist at the United States Treasury Department.

    • Hardcover $35.00
  • Economic Sanctions in Support of Foreign Policy Goals

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer

    Eighty sanctions cases since World War I are reviewed in this monograph.

    Now available directly from: IIE11 Dupont Circle, NWWashington, DC 20036Tel: (202) 328-9000Eighty sanctions cases since World War I are reviewed in this monograph. These include Cuba, Rhodesia, Iran, and the recent grain and pipeline cases. Lessons are drawn concerning the limitations and costs of economic and financial sanctions, and the circumstances in which sanctions are likely to achieve the goals of the imposing country. Guidelines are suggested for the future use of sanctions.

    • Paperback $10.00