Guillermo A. Calvo

Guillermo A. Calvo is Professor of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University's School for International and Public Affairs. He is the author of Money, Exchange Rates, and Output, Emerging Capital Markets in Turmoil (both published by the MIT Press) and other books.

  • Macroeconomics in Times of Liquidity Crises

    Macroeconomics in Times of Liquidity Crises

    Searching for Economic Essentials

    Guillermo A. Calvo

    An examination of Liquidity Crunch in triggering and characterizing financial crises.

    Since the subprime mortgage crisis that began in 2007, advanced economies have felt a nagging sense of insecurity. In parallel, the profession has witnessed phenomena that are alien to mainstream macroeconomic models. Financial crises are systemic, occurring simultaneously in different economies. In this book, Guillermo Calvo focuses on liquidity factors as a commonality in financial crises. Specifically, he examines the role of “liquidity crunch” in triggering crises. He also identifies a fundamental (but overlooked) idea in Keynes's General Theory, termed by Calvo the price theory of money, to rationalize the resiliency of the U.S. dollar when other dollar-backed assets suffered a devastating liquidity crunch.

    Calvo shows that a sharp focus on liquidity reveals some characteristics of liquid assets that are easy to miss otherwise. He argues for liquidity's centrality, presenting what he calls the Liquidity Approach. He shows that simple extensions of standard monetary models help rationalize the implications of the liquidity crunch, and then examines slightly more technical models that highlight liquidity issues. He explores the empirical effects of liquidity crunch by studying systemic sudden stops (of capital inflows), presuming that they are triggered by liquidity crunch-type phenomena.

    • Hardcover $35.00 £27.00
  • Emerging Capital Markets in Turmoil

    Emerging Capital Markets in Turmoil

    Bad Luck or Bad Policy?

    Guillermo A. Calvo

    Analysis of financial crises in emerging market economies, including Mexico, Argentina, and Russia; traces the evolution of crisis theory and challenges the conventional wisdom.

    Since the mid-1990s, emerging market economies have been hit by dramatic highs and lows: lifted by large capital inflows, then plunged into chaos by constrained credit and out-of-control exchange rates. The conventional wisdom about such crises is strongly influenced by the experience of advanced economies. In Emerging Capital Markets in Turmoil, Guillermo Calvo examines these issues instead from the perspective of emerging market economies themselves, taking into account the limitations and vulnerabilities these economies confront. A succession of crises—Mexico in 1994-5, East Asia in 1997, Russia in 1998, and Argentina in 2001—prompted an urgent search in economic policy circles for cogent explanations. Calvo begins by laying the groundwork for a new approach to these issues. In the theoretical chapters that follow, he argues that financial crisis theory regarding emerging markets has progressed from focusing on such variables as fiscal deficits, debt sustainability, and real currency devaluation to stressing the role of the financial sector—emphasizing stocks rather than flows as well as the role credibility plays in containing financial crises. He then returns to a more empirical analysis and focuses on exchange-rate issues, considering the advantages and disadvantages of flexible exchange rates for emerging market economies. Coming after a decade of ongoing crises, Calvo's timely reassessment of the importance of external factors in making emerging market economies safer from financial turmoil offers important policy lessons for dealing with inevitable future episodes of financial crises.

    • Hardcover $10.75 £9.95
    • Paperback $40.00 £30.00
  • Money, Capital Mobility, and Trade

    Money, Capital Mobility, and Trade

    Essays in Honor of Robert A. Mundell

    Guillermo A. Calvo, Rudiger Dornbusch, and Maurice Obstfeld

    Written by Robert Mundell's academic descendants, as well as other leading economists and scholars, the essays in this volume reflect Mundell's broad influence on modern open-economy macroeconomics. The topics include the vicissitudes of gold in the international system, choice of exchange rate regime, post-World War II European monetary reform, banking crises in emerging markets, speculative attacks on fixed exchange rates, monetary policy rules, interactions between economists and policy makers over macrostabilization and structural microeconomic issues, the connection between international factor mobility and trade, the Mundell-Fleming open-economy macro model, the quantitative implications of general-equilibrium sticky price models, the international roles of the euro and yen, and the employment effects of import tariffs.

    • Hardcover $68.00 £46.95
    • Paperback $7.75 £6.99
  • Money, Exchange Rates, and Output

    Money, Exchange Rates, and Output

    Guillermo A. Calvo

    Guillermo Calvo, who foresaw the financial crisis that followed the devaluation of Mexico's peso, has spent much of his career thinking beyond the conventional wisdom. In a quiet and understated way, Calvo has made seminal contributions to several major research areas in macroeconomics, particularly monetary policy, exchange rates, public debt, and stabilization in Latin America and post-communist countries. Money, Exchange Rates, and Output brings together these contributions in a broad selection of the author's work over the past two decades. There are introductions to each section, and an introduction to the entire collection that outlines the connections throughout and surveys the current state of macroeconomic theory. Calvo, an advocate of the "Chicago school" of rational expectations, uses elements of this approach to understand economic development. While he is a top macroeconomics theorist, his models are always intertwined with policy discussion. He pushes readers to combine knowledge of real world facts—of institutions, traditions, and culture, in addition to statistics - with theory. One focus of this collection is on the role of credibility in policy-making. Calvo analyzes the origins and macroeconomic consequences of credibility problems. He also shows how monetary and trade theory can fail when the public does not fully believe in policy announcements. A second focus is on equilibrium multiplicity. Calvo uses models with multiple equilibria to identify factors that cause anomalous behavior. He discusses multiple equilibria in abstract terms as well as in terms of its relevance to understanding domestic public debt. Specific issues covered are predetermined exchange rates, currency substitution, domestic public debt and seigniorage, and stabilizing transition economies.

    • Hardcover $80.00 £55.95
    • Paperback $7.75 £6.99

Contributor

  • The State of Economics, the State of the World

    Kaushik Basu, David Rosenblatt, and Claudia Sepúlveda

    Leading economists address the ongoing challenges to economics in theory and practice in a time of political and economic crises.

    More than a decade of financial crises, sovereign debt problems, political conflict, and rising xenophobia and protectionism has left the global economy unsettled and the ability of economics as a discipline to account for episodes of volatility uncertain. In this book, leading economists consider the state of their discipline in a world of ongoing economic and political crises.

    The book begins with three sweeping essays by Nobel laureates Kenneth Arrow (in one of his last published works), Amartya Sen, and Joseph Stiglitz that offer a summary of the theoretical foundations of modern economics—the twin pillars of general equilibrium theory and welfare economics. Contributors then turn to macroeconomic stabilization and growth and, finally, new areas of research that depart from traditional theory, methodology, and concerns: climate change, behavioral economics, evolutionary game theory, and the use of randomized control trials.

    Contributors Philippe Aghion, Ingela Alger, Kenneth Arrow, Abhijit Banerjee, Kaushik Basu, Lawrence Blume, Guillermo Calvo, Francesco Caselli, Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, Shantayanan Devarajan, Esther Duflo, Samuel Fankhauser, James Foster, Varun Gauri, Xavier Gine, Gäel Giraud, Gita Gopinath, Robert Hockett, Karla Hoff, Ravi Kanbur, Aart Kraay, Michael Kremer, David McKenzie, Célestin Monga, Maurice Obstfeld, Hamid Rashid, Martin Ravallion, Amartya Sen, Luis Servén, Hyun Song Shin, Nicholas Stern, Joseph Stiglitz, Cass Sunstein, Michael Toman, Jörgen Weibull

    • Hardcover $40.00 £30.00