Jacques Mehler

  • Cognition on Cognition

    Cognition on Cognition

    Jacques Mehler and Susana Franck

    This broad-ranging volume includes a series of articles that were originally published as a special issue of Cognition produced to celebrate the 50th volume of the journal.

    This broad-ranging volume includes a series of articles that were originally published as a special issue of Cognition produced to celebrate the 50th volume of the journal. Written by some of the foremost scientists studying different aspects of the mind, the articles review progress achieved over the past twenty-five years in the main areas of the discipline. They provide a unique record of what is happening today in the field of cognition, with an added historical perspective that is often absent from other volumes that seek to cover so much ground.

    The chapters have been arranged in sections on Neuropsychology, Thinking, and Language and Perception. These thematic areas deal with theoretical aspects ranging from the status of explanations in cognitive science, to evolutionary accounts of human cognitive faculties, to the way in which humans use these faculties to reason about, perceive, and interact with their environment and each other. There are also contributions dealing with the abilities of young infants and articles that relate behaviors to their underlying neural substrata.

    • Paperback $12.75
  • Connections and Symbols

    Connections and Symbols

    Steven Pinker and Jacques Mehler

    Connections and Symbols provides the first systematic analysis of the explosive new field of Connectionism that is challenging the basic tenets of cognitive science.

    Does intelligence result from the manipulation of structured symbolic expressions? Or is it the result of the activation of large networks of densely interconnected simple units? Connections and Symbols provides the first systematic analysis of the explosive new field of Connectionism that is challenging the basic tenets of cognitive science.

    These lively discussions by Jerry A. Fodor, Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Steven Pinker, Alan Prince, Joel Lechter, and Thomas G. Bever raise issues that lie at the core of our understanding of how the mind works: Does connectionism offer it truly new scientific model or does it merely cloak the old notion of associationism as a central doctrine of learning and mental functioning? Which of the new empirical generalizations are sound and which are false? And which of the many ideas such as massively parallel processing, distributed representation, constraint satisfaction, and subsymbolic or microfeatural analyses belong together, and which are logically independent?

    Now that connectionism has arrived with full-blown models of psychological processes as diverse as Pavlovian conditioning, visual recognition, and language acquisition, the debate is on. Common themes emerge from all the contributors to Connections and Symbols: criticism of connectionist models applied to language or the parts of cognition employing language like operations; and a focus on what it is about human cognition that supports the traditional physical symbol system hypothesis. While criticizing many aspects of connectionist models, the authors also identify aspects of cognition that could he explained by the connectionist models.

    Connections and Symbols is included in the Cognition Special Issue series, edited by Jacques Mehler.

    • Paperback $30.00

Contributor

  • Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition

    Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition

    Charles A. Nelson and Monica Luciana

    The second edition of an essential resource to the evolving field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, completely revised, with expanded emphasis on social neuroscience, clinical disorders, and imaging genomics.

    The publication of the second edition of this handbook testifies to the rapid evolution of developmental cognitive neuroscience as a distinct field. Brain imaging and recording technologies, along with well-defined behavioral tasks—the essential methodological tools of cognitive neuroscience—are now being used to study development. Technological advances have yielded methods that can be safely used to study structure-function relations and their development in children's brains. These new techniques combined with more refined cognitive models account for the progress and heightened activity in developmental cognitive neuroscience research. The Handbook covers basic aspects of neural development, sensory and sensorimotor systems, language, cognition, emotion, and the implications of lifelong neural plasticity for brain and behavioral development.

    The second edition reflects the dramatic expansion of the field in the seven years since the publication of the first edition. This new Handbook has grown from forty-one chapters to fifty-four, all original to this edition. It places greater emphasis on affective and social neuroscience—an offshoot of cognitive neuroscience that is now influencing the developmental literature. The second edition also places a greater emphasis on clinical disorders, primarily because such research is inherently translational in nature. Finally, the book's new discussions of recent breakthroughs in imaging genomics include one entire chapter devoted to the subject. The intersection of brain, behavior, and genetics represents an exciting new area of inquiry, and the second edition of this essential reference work will be a valuable resource for researchers interested in the development of brain-behavior relations in the context of both typical and atypical development.

    • Hardcover $200.00
  • Objects and Attention

    Objects and Attention

    Brian Scholl

    An overview of object-based models of attention.

    One of the most important and controversial topics in the field of visual attention is the nature of the units of attentional selection. Traditional models have characterized attention in spatial terms, as a "spotlight" that moves around the visual field, applying processing resources to whatever falls within that spatial region. Recent models of attention, in contrast, suggest that in some cases the underlying units of selection are discrete visual objects and that attention may be limited by the number of objects that can be simultaneously selected. Objects and Attention explores the idea that attention and objecthood are intimately and importantly related. In addition to reviewing the evidence for object-based attention and exploring what can "count" as an object of attention, it examines how such issues relate to other sensory modalities, such as auditory objects of attention, and to other areas of cognitive science, such as the infant's object concept. The book has applications to work in experimental cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, philosophy of mind, developmental psychology, computer modelling, and the psychology of audition.

    • Paperback $42.00
  • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness

    The Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness

    Stanislas Dehaene

    Empirical and theoretical foundations of a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness.

    This book investigates the philosophical, empirical, and theoretical bases on which a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness can be founded. The research questions reviewed include: Does perception occur without awareness? Can the neural bases of perceptual awareness be visualized with brain-imaging methods? What do unilateral neglect and extinction tell us about conscious and unconscious processing? What is the contribution of brainstem nuclei to conscious states? How can we identify mental processes uniquely associated with consciousness? An introductory chapter proposes a theoretical framework for building a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness, and two concluding chapters evaluate the progress made so far.

    • Paperback $45.00
  • Object Recognition in Man, Monkey, and Machine

    Object Recognition in Man, Monkey, and Machine

    Michael J. Tarr and Heinrich H. Bülthoff

    The contributors bring a wide range of methodologies to bear on the common problem of image-based object recognition.

    These interconnected essays on three-dimensional visual object recognition present cutting-edge research by some of the most creative neuroscientific, cognitive, and computational scientists in the field.

    Cassandra Moore and Patrick Cavanagh take a classic demonstration, the perception of "two-tone" images, and turn it into a method for understanding the nature of object representations in terms of surfaces and the interaction between bottom-up and top-down processes. Michael J. Tarr and Isabel Gauthier use computer graphics to study whether viewpoint-dependent recognition mechanisms can generalize between exemplars of perceptually defined classes. Melvyn A. Goodale and G. Keith Humphrey use innovative psychophysical techniques to investigate dissociable aspects of visual and spatial processing in brain-injured subjects. D.I. Perrett, M.W. Oram, and E. Ashbridge combine neurophysiological single-cell data from monkeys with computational analyses for a new way of thinking about the mechanisms that mediate viewpoint-dependent object recognition and mental rotation. Shimon Ullman also addresses possible mechanisms to account for viewpoint-dependent behavior, but from the perspective of machine vision. Finally, Philippe G. Schyns synthesizes work from many areas, to provide a coherent account of how stimulus class and recognition task interact.

    The contributors bring a wide range of methodologies to bear on the common problem of image-based object recognition.

    • Paperback $30.00
  • Similarity and Symbols in Human Thinking

    Similarity and Symbols in Human Thinking

    Steven A Sloman and Lance J. Rips

    Much of current cognitive science is a debate between two views of thinking—thinking as governed by mental rules and thinking as governed by similarity among ideas. Contributors to this volume explore these contrasting views.

    Much of current cognitive science is a debate between two views of thinking—thinking as governed by mental rules and thinking as governed by similarity among ideas. Contributors to this volume explore these contrasting views in research on reasoning and concepts, and consider their merits from the perspectives of cognition, development, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. The book evaluates the potential of each view to describe human cognition and examines whether systems compatible with these different perspectives might work together in explaining thought. While maintaining a high level of scientific sophistication, the book remains accessible to undergraduates and researchers in other fields.

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  • Computational Approaches to Language Acquisition

    Computational Approaches to Language Acquisition

    Michael R. Brent

    The past fifteen years have seen great changes in the field of language acquisition. New experimental methods have yielded insights into the linguistic knowledge of ever younger children, and interest has grown in the phonological, syntactic, and semantic aspects of the lexicon. Computational investigations of language acquisition have also changed, reflecting, among other things, the profound shift in the field of natural language processing from hand-crafted grammars to grammars that are learned automatically from samples of naturally occurring language. Each of the four research papers in this book takes a novel formal approach to a particular problem in language acquisition. In the first paper, J. M. Siskind looks at developmentally inspired models of word learning. In the second, M. R. Brent and T. A. Cartwright look at how children could discover the sounds of words, given that word boundaries are not marked by any acoustic analog of the spaces between written words. In the third, P. Resnik measures the association between verbs and the semantic categories of their arguments that children likely use as clues to verb meanings. Finally, P. Niyogi and R. C. Berwick address the setting of syntactic parameters such as headedness—for example, whether the direct object comes before or after the verb.

    • Paperback $25.00
  • Animal Cognition

    Charles R. Gallistel

    These contributions from six leading laboratories document experimentally established findings about mental representations in animals and the role these representations play in the genesis of behavior. Animal representations in a number of widely different domains are analyzed - time and number in rats, space in foraging bees, conditioning events in rats, stimulus categorization in pigeons, and social structure in vervet monkeys - in order to determine whether animals have behaviorally consequential representations of their environment that can tell us about mind in general. In his introduction, Gallistel defines the controversial concept of representation as having the same meaning in psychology as it has in mathematics - a formal correspondence, or isomorphism, between two systems that makes it possible to use operations in one system to draw conclusions about the other. The modern experimental work reported here seeks to derive from animal behavioral data the mental representations or processes in the brain isomorphic to specific aspects of the animal's environment that function to adapt its behavior to that environment.

    ContentsRepresentations in Animal Cognition: An Introduction, C. R. Gallistel • Representation of Time, John Gibbon, Russell M. Church • Alternative Representations of Time, Number, and Rate, Russell M. Church, Hilary A. Broadbent • Honey Bee Cognition, James L. Gould • Event Representation in Pavlovian Conditioning: Image and Action, Peter C. Holland • Levels of Stimulus Control: A Functional Approach, R. J. Herrnstein • The Representation of Social Relations by Monkeys, Dorothy L. Cheney, Robert M. Seyfarth

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  • Neurobiology of Cognition

    Neurobiology of Cognition

    Peter D. Eimas and Albert M. Galaburda

    The six essays in this book focus on the empirically answerable issue of whether and to what extent it is possible to explain observations about the mind in terms of observations about the brain.

    Neurobiologists and cognitive scientists agree that there is a need for a biologically consistent and realistic description of human cognition. The six essays in this book focus on the empirically answerable issue of whether and to what extent it is possible to explain observations about the mind in terms of observations about the brain. They provide wide-ranging examples of this exciting, ongoing endeavor to provide a neurobiology of cognition from grand scheme attempts to explain the full extent of human cognition, through an examination of the functional structures for echolocation in the bat and the possibilities for its neuronal instantiation, to the cellular and molecular structures of memory and learning.

    ContentsSome Agenda Item for a Neurobiology of Cognition: An Introduction, Peter D. Eimas, Albert M. Galaburda • Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition, Antonio R. Damasio • Neuronal Models of Cognitive Functions, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Stanislas Dehaene • Seeking the Neurobiological Bases of Speech Perception, Joanne L. Miller, Peter W. Jusczyk • Perception and its Neuronal Mechanisms, Richard Held • A View of the World Through the Bat's Ear: The Formation of Acoustic Images in Echolocation, James A. Simmons • The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Carl W. Cotman, Gary S. Lynch

    • Paperback $35.00