Joel L. Davis

Joel L. Davis is Program Officer, Cognitive, Neural, and Biomolecular Science and Technology Division, Office of Naval Research.

  • Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots

    Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots

    Joseph Ayers, Joel L. Davis, and Alan Rudolph

    An overview of neurotechnology, the engineering of robots based on animals and animal behavior.

    The goal of neurotechnology is to confer the performance advantages of animal systems on robotic machines. Biomimetic robots differ from traditional robots in that they are agile, relatively cheap, and able to deal with real-world environments. The engineering of these robots requires a thorough understanding of the biological systems on which they are based, at both the biomechanical and physiological levels.This book provides an in-depth overview of the field. The areas covered include myomorphic actuators, which mimic muscle action; neuromorphic sensors, which, like animal sensors, represent sensory modalities such as light, pressure, and motion in a labeled-line code; biomimetic controllers, based on the relatively simple control systems of invertebrate animals; and the autonomous behaviors that are based on an animal's selection of behaviors from a species-specific behavioral "library." The ultimate goal is to develop a truly autonomous robot, one able to navigate and interact with its environment solely on the basis of sensory feedback without prompting from a human operator.

    • Hardcover $16.75
    • Paperback $60.00
  • Visual Attention and Cortical Circuits

    Visual Attention and Cortical Circuits

    Jochen Braun, Christof Koch, and Joel L. Davis

    An attempt to derive a comprehensive theory of attention from both neurobiological and psychological data.

    The neurobiology and psychology of attention have much to learn from each other. Neurobiologists recognize that responses in sensory cortex depend on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus, but have few ways to study how perception changes as a result. Psychologists have the conceptual and methodological tools to do just that, but are confounded by the multiple interpretations and theoretical ambiguities. This book attempts to bridge the two fields and to derive a comprehensive theory of attention from both neurobiological and psychological data. It highlights situations where attention can be seen to alter both neural activity and psychophysical performance/phenomenal experience. This "bicultural" approach contributes not only to attention research but to the larger goal of linking neural activity to conscious experience.

    The book focuses mainly on the effects of visual attention on the ventral and dorsal streams of visual cortex in humans and monkeys and the associated changes in visual performance. Several larger findings emerge: attention may involve more than one neural system; attention modulates all stages of cortical visual processing; the effect of attention is constrained by the intrinsic connectivity of cortex and the resulting contextual interactions; and the notion of a "saliency map" remains central to thinking about visual attention. The book also considers several approaches to evaluating the same variable through different methods, such as behavioral measurements, functional imaging, and single-unit recording.

    Contributors Narcisse P. Bichot, Erik Blaser, Geoffrey M. Boynton, Jochen Braun, Maurizio Corbetta, Sean M. Culhane, Florin Cutzu, Sophie Deneve, Robert Desimone, John Duncan, Sunil P. Gandhi, Charles D. Gilbert, David J. Heeger, James W. Holsapple, Alexander C. Huk, Minami Ito, Laurent Itti, Christof Koch, Peter E. Latham, Nilli Lavie, D. Kathleen Lee, Zhong-Lin Lu, John H.R. Maunsell, Carrie J. McAdams, Brad C. Motter, Alexandre Pouget, Adam Reeves, John H. Reynolds, Jeffrey D. Schall, Christian Scheier, Shinsuke Shimojo, Gordon L. Shulman, George Sperling, Kirk G. Thompson, John K. Tsotsos, Katsumi Watanabe, Erich Weichselgartner, Gerald Westheimer

    • Hardcover $68.00
  • Advances in Synaptic Plasticity

    Advances in Synaptic Plasticity

    Michel Baudry, Joel L. Davis, and Richard F. Thompson

    This book, a follow-up to the editors' Synaptic Plasticity (MIT Press,1993), reports on the most recent trends in the field. The levels of analysis range from molecular to cellular and network, the unifying theme being the nature of the relationships between synaptic plasticity and information processing and storage.

    Many neurons exhibit plasticity; that is, they can change structurally or functionally, often in a lasting way. Plasticity is evident in such diverse phenomena as learning and memory, brain development, drug tolerance, sprouting of axon terminals after a brain lesion, and various cellular forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression. This book, a follow-up to the editors' Synaptic Plasticity (MIT Press, 1993), reports on the most recent trends in the field. The levels of analysis range from molecular to cellular and network, the unifying theme being the nature of the relationships between synaptic plasticity and information processing and storage.

    Contributors Yael Amitai, Michel Baudry, Theodore W. Berger, Pierre-Alain Buchs, A.K. Butler, Franck A. Chaillan, Gilbert A. Chauvet, Marie-Françoise Chesselet, Barry W. Connors, Taraneh Ghaffari, Jay R. Gibson, Ziv Gil, Michel Khrestchatisky, Dietmar Kuhl, Carole E. Landisman, Gilles Laurent, Jim-Shih Liaw, David J. Linden, Katrina MacLeod, Henry Markram, W.V. Morehouse, Dominique Muller, J.A. Napieralski, Santiago Rivera, François S. Roman, Bernard Soumireu-Mourat, Oswald Steward, Mark Stopfer, F.G. Szele, Richard F. Thompson, Nicolas Toni, Bernard Truchet, Misha Tsodyks, K. Uryu, Ascher Uziel, Christopher S. Wallace, Yun Wang, Michael Wehr, Paul F. Worley, Xiaping Xie

    • Hardcover $16.75
    • Paperback $40.00
  • Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 3

    Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 3

    Michel Baudry and Joel L. Davis

    This is the third volume in a series of books devoted to the mechanisms and functional significance of two forms of synaptic plasticity, Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD), which are widely assumed to play critical roles in information processing and storage in the brain. Long-Term Potentiation offers the most recent hypotheses concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying LTP and LTD, discusses the functional significance of LTP and LTD in neuronal networks, and reviews several examples of network simulations incorporating LTP- and LTD-like rules of synaptic modification. The book is organized into several sections covering different aspects of the field ranging from molecular and cellular processes to network models. The often deliberately controversial contributions are from the leading laboratories in the field and reflect contemporary multidisciplinary approaches.

    • Hardcover $20.75
  • Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

    Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

    James C. Houk, Joel L. Davis, and David G. Beiser

    This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models. Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part. Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.

    Contributors James L. Adams, P. Apicella, Michael Arbib, Dana H. Ballard, Andrew G. Barto, J. Brian Burns, Christopher I. Connolly, Peter F. Dominey, Richard P. Dum, John Gabrieli, M. Garcia-Munoz, Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic, Ann M. Graybiel, P. M. Groves, Mary M. Hayhoe, J. R. Hollerman, George Houghton, James C. Houk, Stephen Jackson, Minoru Kimura, A. B. Kirillov, Rolf Kotter, J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg, M. S. Manley, M. E. Martone, J. Mirenowicz, C. D. Myre, Jeff Pelz, Nathalie Picard, R. Romo, S. F. Sawyer, E Scarnat, Wolfram Schultz, Peter L. Strick, Charles J. Wilson, Jeff Wickens, Donald J. Woodward, S. J. Young

    • Hardcover $16.75
  • Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 2

    Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 2

    Michel Baudry and Joel L. Davis

    Following the successful format of the first volume on long-term potentiation—a leading candidate for the neuronal basis of learning and memory—Volume 2 brings together the most recent data and hypotheses by top neuroscientists regarding the mechanisms of this phenomenon and of long-term depression (LTD).

    Following the successful format of the first volume on long- term potentiation—a leading candidate for the neuronal basis of learning and memory—Volume 2 brings together the most recent data and hypotheses by top neuroscientists regarding the mechanisms of this phenomenon and of long-term depression (LTD). The book is divided into several sections covering different aspects of the field ranging from molecular mechanisms of plasticity to computational neurobiology. It revisits some of the major points covered in Volume 1, updating them in this fast-moving field. It also introduces several new issues that have arisen since then. Of the many possible new topics that could have been added, the editors have focused on retrograde messengers and the mechanisms and functions of LTP and LTD because they are the subject of much interest, research, and controversy. The section on retrograde messengers deals primarily with nitric oxide.

    • Hardcover $95.00
  • Large-Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain

    Large-Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain

    Christof Koch and Joel L. Davis

    The authors encompass a broad background, from biophysics and electrophysiology to psychophysics, neurology, and computational vision. However, all the chapters focus on a common issue: the role of the primate (including human) cerebral cortex in memory, visual perception, focal attention, and awareness.

    Large-Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain brings together thirteen original contributions by some of the top scientists working in neuroscience today. It presents models and theories that will most likely shape and influence the way we think about the brain, the mind, and interactions between the two in the years to come. Chapters consider global theories of the brain from the bottom up—providing theories that are based on real nerve cells, their firing properties, and their anatomical connections. This contrasts with attempts that have been made by psychologists and by theorists in the artificial intelligence community to understand the brain strictly from a psychological or computational point of view. The authors encompass a broad background, from biophysics and electrophysiology to psychophysics, neurology, and computational vision. However, all the chapters focus on a common issue: the role of the primate (including human) cerebral cortex in memory, visual perception, focal attention, and awareness.

    Contributors Horace Barlow. Patricia Churchland, V. S. Ramachandran, and Terrence J. Sejnowski. Antonio R. Damasio and Hanna Damasio. Robert Desimone, Earl K. Miller, and Leonardo Chelazzi. Christof Koch and Francis Crick. Rodolfo R. Llinas and Urs Ribary. David Mumford. Tomaso Poggio and Anya Hurlbert. Michael I. Posner and Mary K. Rothbart. Wolf Singer. Charles F. Stevens. Shimon Ullman. David C. Van Essen, Charles W. Anderson, and Bruno A. Olshausen

    • Hardcover $75.00
    • Paperback $40.00
  • Synaptic Plasticity

    Synaptic Plasticity

    Molecular, Cellular, and Functional Aspects

    Michel Baudry, Richard F. Thompson, and Joel L. Davis

    An up-to-date overview of the current status of research on the full scope of synaptic plasticity, including synaptic remodeling in response to damage, long-term depression and long-term potentiation, and learning and memory.

    Synaptic Plasticity presents an up-to-date overview of the current status of research on the full scope of synaptic plasticity, including synaptic remodeling in response to damage, long-term depression and long-term potentiation, and learning and memory. The contributions are written by leading experts in the field and cover approaches from biochemical, anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and computational levels. They offer hypotheses concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the various manifestations of synaptic plasticity and propose models explaining how these cellular events can be linked to the functional and behavioral expressions of these adaptive principles.

    Contents IntroductionMolecular Correlates of Activity-dependent Development and Synaptic Plasticity, S. Hockfield • Molecular Sorting in Neurons, 0. Steward • Molecular and Morphological Responses to Deafferentation in Rodents, C. E. Finch, T. H. McNeill • Forms of Long-term Potentiation Induced by NMDA and Non–NMDA Receptor Activation, T. Teyler, L. Grover • Long-term Potentiation: Biochemical Mechanisms, M. Baudry, G. Lynch • Cerebellar Mechanisms of Long-Term Depression, M. Ito • Long-term Depression: Related Mechanisms in Cerebellum, Neocortex, and Hippocampus, A. Artola, W. Singer • Theory of Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex, N. Intrator, M. F. Bear, L. N. Cooper, M. A. Paradiso • A Theoretical and Experimental Strategy for Realizing a Biologically Based Model of the Hippocampus, T. W. Berger et al • Synaptic Plasticity, Learning, and Memory, S. P. Rose • Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage, R. F. Thompson et al

    • Hardcover $65.00
    • Paperback $35.00
  • Olfaction

    Olfaction

    A Model System for Computational Neuroscience

    Joel L. Davis and Howard Eichenbaum

    Computational neuroscientists have recently turned to modeling olfactory structures because these are likely to have the same functional properties as currently popular network designs for perception and memory. This book provides a useful survey of current work on olfactory system circuitry, including connections of this system to brain structures involved in cognition and memory, and describes the computational models of olfactory processing that have been developed to date. Contributions cover empirical investigations of the neurobiology of the olfactory systems (anatomy, physiology, synaptic plasticity, behavioral physiology) as well as the application of computer models to understanding these systems. Fundamental issues in olfactory processing by the nervous systems such as experimental strategies in the study of olfaction, stages of odor processing, and critical questions in sensory coding are considered across empirical/applied boundaries and throughout the contributions.

    Contributors I. Fundamental Anatomy, Physiology, and Plasticity of the Olfactory System, Gordon M. Shepherd. John S. Kauer, S. R. Neff, Kathryn A. Hamilton, and Angel R. Cinelli. Kevin L. Ketchum, Lewis B. Haberly. Joseph L. Price, S. Thomas Carmichael, Ken M. Carnes, Marie Christine Clugnet, Masaru Kuroda, and James P. Ray. Michael Leon, Donald A. Wilson, and Kathleen M. Guthrie. Gary Lynch and Richard Granger. Howard Eichenbaum, Tim Otto, Cynthia Wible, and Jean Piper. • II. Developments in Computational Models of the Olfactory System, DeLiang Wang, Joachim Buhmann, and Christoph von der Marlsburg. Walter Freeman. Richard Granger, Ursula Staubi, José Ambrose-Ingersoll, and Gary Lynch. James M. Bower. Dan Hammerstrom and Eric Means.

    • Hardcover $68.00
    • Paperback $35.00
  • Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 1

    Long-Term Potentiation, Volume 1

    A Debate of Current Issues

    Michel Baudry and Joel L. Davis

    The twenty-five contributions in this pivotal volume cover the most recent discoveries and debates, providing a comprehensive update on LTP for those who work in the field of learning and memory and a solid introduction to the properties, mechanisms, and functions of LTP for investigators in other areas of brain research.

    Controversy is a hallmark of an evolving field. Since its discovery by neuroscientists in 1972, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission has been a prime candidate for a cellular explanation of memory and an exciting source of controversies that run from the molecular to the behavioral level. The twenty-five contributions in this pivotal volume cover the most recent discoveries and debates, providing a comprehensive update on LTP for those who work in the field of learning and memory and a solid introduction to the properties, mechanisms, and functions of LTP for investigators in other areas of brain research.

    Contributors I. Pre- versus the Post-Synaptic Changes in LTP. T.V.P. Bliss, M.P. Clements, M.L. Errington, M.A. Lynch, and J.H. Williams. L. Aniksztejn, M.P. Roisin, A. Represa, and Y. Ben-Ari. Z.I. Bashir, S.T. Alford, J.F. Blake, B.G. Frenguelli, S.N. Davies, K. G. Reymann and G.L. Collingridge. W.E.J.M. Ghijsen, and F.H. Lopes Da Silva. F. Crepel. J.M. Bekkers and C.F. Stevens. B.L. McNaughton. R. Malinow and R. Tsien. J. Larson, J. Ambros-Ingerson, and G. Lynch. • II. The Role of Different CalciumDependent Enzymes in LTP. D.J. Perkel and R.A. Nicoll. A. Routtenberg. M. Baudry. P.N.E. De Graan and W.H. Gispen. • III. The Biophysical/Structural Changes in LTP. C. Wallace, N. Hawrylak and W. Greenough. H.J. Matthies. IV. The Relationship between LTP and Learning and Memory. C.A. Barnes, B.L. McNaughton, and C.A. Erickson. C. Mondadori and L. Weiskrantz. R.G.M. Morris, S. Davis, and S.P. Butcher. S. LaRoche, V. Doyere, and C. Redini Del Negro. B. Soumireut-Mourat. V. LTP Rules in Neural Networks. T.W. Berger and M.F. Yeckel. T. Brown, A.M. Zador, and Z.F. Mainen. R. Granger, A. Cobas, and G. Lynch. J.C. Taylor. Y. Fregnac.

    • Hardcover $20.75

Contributor

  • Adopting Open Source Software

    Adopting Open Source Software

    A Practical Guide

    Brian Fitzgerald, Jay P. Kesan, Barbara Russo, Maha Shaikh, and Giancarlo Succi

    A rich case-study analysis of open source software adoption by public organizations in different countries and settings.

    Government agencies and public organizations often consider adopting open source software (OSS) for reasons of transparency, cost, citizen access, and greater efficiency in communication and delivering services. Adopting Open Source Software offers five richly detailed real-world case studies of OSS adoption by public organizations. The authors analyze the cases and develop an overarching, conceptual framework to clarify the various enablers and inhibitors of OSS adoption in the public sector. The book provides a useful resource for policymakers, practitioners, and academics.The five cases of OSS adoption include a hospital in Ireland; an IT consortium serving all the municipalities of the province of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy; schools and public offices in the Extremadura region of Spain; the Massachusetts state government's open standards policy in the United States; and the ICT department of the Italian Chamber of Deputies. The book provides a comparative analysis of these cases around the issues of motivation, strategies, technologies, economic and social aspects, and the implications for theory and practice.

    • Paperback $40.00
  • Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software

    Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software

    Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam, and Karim R. Lakhani

    What is the status of the Free and Open Source Software (F/OSS) revolution? Has the creation of software that can be freely used, modified, and redistributed transformed industry and society, as some predicted, or is this transformation still a work in progress? Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software brings together leading analysts and researchers to address this question, examining specific aspects of F/OSS in a way that is both scientifically rigorous and highly relevant to real-life managerial and technical concerns.

    The book analyzes a number of key topics: the motivation behind F/OSS—why highly skilled software developers devote large amounts of time to the creation of "free" products and services; the objective, empirically grounded evaluation of software—necessary to counter what one chapter author calls the "steamroller" of F/OSS hype; the software engineering processes and tools used in specific projects, including Apache, GNOME, and Mozilla; the economic and business models that reflect the changing relationships between users and firms, technical communities and firms, and between competitors; and legal, cultural, and social issues, including one contribution that suggests parallels between "open code" and "open society" and another that points to the need for understanding the movement's social causes and consequences.

    • Hardcover $40.00
    • Paperback $40.00
  • Shaping the Network Society

    Shaping the Network Society

    The New Role of Civil Society in Cyberspace

    Douglas Schuler and Peter Day

    How computer professionals and communities can work together to shape sociotechnical systems that will meet society's challenges.

    Information and computer technologies are used every day by real people with real needs. The authors contributing to Shaping the Network Society describe how technology can be used effectively by communities, activists, and citizens to meet society's challenges. In their vision, computer professionals are concerned less with bits, bytes, and algorithms and more with productive partnerships that engage both researchers and community activists. These collaborations are producing important sociotechnical work that will affect the future of the network society.

    Traditionally, academic research on real-world users of technology has been neglected or even discouraged. The authors contributing to this book are working to fill this gap; their theoretical and practical discussions illustrate a new orientation—research that works with people in their natural social environments, uses common language rather than rarefied academic discourse, and takes a pragmatic perspective. The topics they consider are key to democratization and social change. They include human rights in the "global billboard society"; public computing in Toledo, Ohio; public digital culture in Amsterdam; "civil networking" in the former Yugoslavia; information technology and the international public sphere; "historical archaeologies" of community networks; "technobiographical" reflections on the future; libraries as information commons; and globalization and media democracy, as illustrated by Indymedia, a global collective of independent media organizations.

    • Hardcover $45.00
    • Paperback $25.00
  • Changing Course

    Changing Course

    A Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment

    Stephan Schmidheiny

    a practical introduction to new and necessary methods of running businesses so that the realities of business and the marketplace support the realities of the environment and the needs of human development

    Changing Course is a practical introduction to new and necessary methods of running businesses so that the realities of business and the marketplace support the realities of the environment and the needs of human development. Gathering the expertise of more than 50 leaders of multinational corporations and backed by an array of case studies showing existing best practices, Changing Course provides an extensive analysis of how the business community can adapt and contribute to the crucial goal of sustainable development - which combines the objectives of environmental protection and economic growth. All of its recommendations are linked by the belief that only by allowing market forces to operate freely and integrating the "polluter pays" principle into environmental and economic policy can sustainable development be achieved.

    Changing Course focuses first on the often adversarial relationship between business and government in chapters that discuss full-cost pricing and market signals, energy, capital markets, trade, and managing change. It shows how environmental costs, which are often invisible, can best be factored into production, investment, and trade. And it calls for a rational long-term energy strategy that balances the energy needs for economic development with a policy shift toward the payment of pollution costs and energy efficiency - changes that demand new thinking and increased flexibility by policy makers in both the public and the private sectors.

    Changing Course then explores business to business relationships, beginning with the sensitive topic of corporate reporting in environmental areas and discussion of how an environmentally conscious firm is managed. Chapters look at optimal products and processes, product stewardship in retail and trading companies, at new practices for such renewable resource industries as forestry and agriculture, and at the need for new long-term partnerships to boost economic development and environmental standards in the developing world.Changing Course concludes with a detailed look at the implications of sustainable development for business in the developing world, where, as former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi pointed out, poverty itself is a great polluter.

    • Hardcover $19.75
    • Paperback $37.00