John C. Marshall

Contributor

  • Spoken Language Comprehension

    An Experimental Approach to Disordered and Normal Processing

    Lorraine K. Tyler

    Spoken Language Comprehension is the first coherent presentation of an original detailed experimental and theoretical account of what are rationally taken to be "online" processing deficits that lie at the core of aphasic miscomprehension. It presents exciting work that is highly relevant to the important current debate about the nature of aphasic comprehension impairment and its relationship to models of normal functioning. Lorraine K. Tyler focuses on a crucial but neglected aspect of language disorders: how the real-time analysis processes involved in comprehending spoken language break down in acquired aphasia. She describes a new approach to the study of language disorders that specifies the processes involved in the immediate construction of various types of linguistic representations. Her unique large-scale analysis makes possible the evaluation of various theoretical accounts of the underlying basis of different kinds of aphasic deficits. By developing a set of experimental tests designed to detect specific deficits in the principal categories of real-time comprehension, Tyler constructs a processing profile of ten patients that shows where each patient performs normally and where performance breaks down. This provides a detailed picture of a patient's ability to perform the appropriate analyses of speech input: breaking down the speech signal, recognizing words, making the appropriate form-function mapping, and constructing the appropriate types of higher-level representations (syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic). Data from standard tests of comprehension deficits are also included, which permits comparison of performance in various tasks and among patients to see where differences and similarities emerge.

    • Hardcover $52.00
  • Language

    Language

    Structure, Processing, and Disorders

    David Caplan

    This theoretical guide for speech-language pathologists, neuropsychologists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists describes the linguistic and psycholinguistic basis of aphasias that are a result of acquired neurological disease. Caplan first outlines contemporary concepts and models in language processing and then shows in detail how these are related to language disorders. Chapters are organized around basic linguistic processes such as spoken word recognition, semantics, spoken word production, reading and writing of single words, and more complex processes such as sentence production and discourse structures.

    Caplan's summary of the major concepts and results in both linguistics and psycholinguistics provides a solid basis for understanding current studies of language disorders as well as those likely to be discussed in the future. Considerable emphasis is placed on studies of language processing that measure what representations a subject is computing while he or she is in the middle of accomplishing a language-related task. These "on-line" studies provide the most reliable guide to the nature of many psycholinguistic processes. Throughout the book, Caplan's goal is to present material at an introductory level so that readers can become informed about the work of linguistically and psycholinguistically oriented researchers who study normal and disordered language and put this work to use in clinical practice.

    • Hardcover $52.50
    • Paperback $45.00
  • Modular Deficits in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    Modular Deficits in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    Myrna F. Schwartz

    Bringing models and methods of cognitive neuropsychology to bear on the study of dementing disorders, these contributions present sound evidence that diseases of the Alzheimer type compromise brain function in a highly selective manner, affecting some aspects of cognition while sparing others. Included are original case studies that explore in detail the nature of the linguistic, semantic, and visuoperceptual disorders in patients with degenerative dementias. The book pursues a number of themes with important ramifications for the study of higher mental functions. By exploring the neurocognitive modules that are the targets of degenerative processes, it shows that Alzheimer's disease is not one disease but a complex of disease states, that clinical diversity is an essential feature of Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer-type dementia, that this diversity reflects to a large extent the differential involvement of particular neural systems that support cognition, and that when suitable methods and models are applied, studies of Alzheimer-type dementia can expand our understanding of basic brain-behavior relations.

    Contributors: M. Moscovitch and C. Umilta, M. F. Schwartz, J. A. Stark, A. R. Damasio, G. W. Van Hoesen, B. T. Hyman, J. B. Chawluk, M. Grossman, J. A. Calcano-Perez, A. Alavi, H. I. Hurtig, M. Reivich, A. Martin, J. Baron, M. Moscovitch, H. Chertkow, D. Bub, E. M. Saffran, E. J. Fitzpatrick-DeSalme, H. B. Coslett

    • Hardcover $15.75
    • Paperback $40.00
  • Laura

    Laura

    A Case Study for the Modularity of Language

    Jeni Yamada

    The case of Laura (also known as Marta), a young woman with a testable IQ of 40, provides the opportunity to address key issues concerning the relationships between language and other mental functions as well and among the components of language use. The case shows that language can develop and function in spite of marked, pervasive cognitive deficiencies, and it provides clinical evidence in support of the notion that language is an independent cognitive ability. Possibly the most in-depth and comprehensive study of selectively intact language done to date, this case counters claims that cognitive, social/interactive, and perceptual factors can wholly account for language acquistion and upholds the notion that language is a highly evolved, specialized human ability driven at least in part by a set of principles seen in no other cognitive domains. Jeni Yamada presents Laura's provocative performance profile of relatively advanced linguistic abilities alongside significantly impaired nonlinguistic skills. Laura differs from other subjects studied in that her cognitive impairment is particularly marked. In addition, her syntactic and semantic knowledge are more dissociated than previously studied subjects. As the data on Laura unfold, they show that language can emerge and develop despite limited nonlinguistic cognitive abilities, including those hypothesized to be prerequisite for language or to reflect underlying principles necessary for both nonlinguistic and linguistic development. In addition, the case indicates that various components of language are separable and differentially related to nonlanguage abilities.

    • Hardcover $37.00
  • Theoretical Perspectives on Language Deficits

    Theoretical Perspectives on Language Deficits

    Yosef Grodzinsky

    This critical history of research on acquired language deficits (aphasias) demonstrates the usefulness of linguistic analysis of aphasic syndrome for neuropsychology, linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Drawing on new empirical studies, Grodzinsky concludes that the use of grammatical tools for the description of the aphasias is critical. The selective nature of these deficits offers a novel view into the inner workings of our language faculty and the mechanisms that support it.

    In contrast to other proposals that the left anterior cerebral cortex is crucial for all syntactic capacity, Grodzinsky's discoveries support his theory that this region is necessary for only a small component of the human language faculty. On this basis he provides a detailed explanation for many aphasic phenomena - including a number of puzzling cross-linguistic aphasia differences - and uses aphasic data to evaluate competing linguistic theories.

    Yosef Grodzinsky is a member of the psychology faculty at Tel Aviv University. Theoretical Perspectives on Language Deficits is included in the series Biology of Language and Cognition, edited by John P. Marshall. A Bradford Book.

    • Hardcover $40.00
    • Paperback $20.00
  • From Reading to Neurons

    From Reading to Neurons

    Albert M. Galaburda

    The formal approach to developmental disorders of cognition presented here promises to help answer outstanding questions about human linguistic disposition, language acquisition, developmental deviance, diversity, and breakdown.

    Advances in cognitive science are leading to new knowledge of human language development and its underlying mechanisms. The contributions in this book apply recent advances in neurobiology, developmental neuropathology behavioral neurology, psycholinguistics, and computational models of learning and cognition to outstanding questions about the acquisition of language in humans, with special emphasis on dyslexia and related developmental disorders. The formal approach to developmental disorders of cognition presented here promises to help answer outstanding questions about human linguistic disposition, language acquisition, developmental deviance, diversity, and breakdown.

    From Reading to Neurons is included in the series Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition, edited by John P. Marshall. A Bradford Book

    • Hardcover $85.00
  • The Psychobiology of Down Syndrome

    The Psychobiology of Down Syndrome

    Lynn Nadel

    This book covers recent research with neurobiological and cognitive features of Down syndrome.

    This book covers recent research with neurobiological and cognitive features of Down syndrome. There has been notable progress in understanding the psychobiological concomitants of Down syndrome. New data have pinpointed selective neurological defects, and recent research has revealed that it is possible to work with the supposedly intractable, irreversible deficits accompanying Down syndrome. Surprising improvements in cognitive functions, including language, can be shown by children and even adolescents.

    The topics include: early concept learning in infants with Down syndrome (Jennifer Wishart); the emergence of language skills (Lars Smith), early lexical development (Caroline Mervis), and developmental asynchrony of language development in Down syndrome (Jon Miller); the use of computers with speech output to promote language use (Laura Meyers); differences between Down syndrome and normally developing children in the use of a number concept (Rochel Gelman); the neuropsychological status of older Down syndrome individuals (Krystyna Wisniewski); neuropathological (Thomas Kemper), psychobiological (Siegfried Peuschel), and neurophysiological (Eric Courchesne) aspects of Down syndrome; and the relation between Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (Michael Thase).

    The Psychobiology of Down Syndrome is included in the series Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition, edited by John C. Marshall, and is sponsored by the National Down Syndrome Society.

    A Bradford Book.

    • Hardcover $13.75
  • Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension

    Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension

    David Caplan and Nancy Hildebrandt

    On the basis of a decade's work on syntactic-comprehension disorders, primarily in the Neurolinguistics Laboratory of the Montreal Neurological Hospital, David Caplan and Nancy Hildebrandt present an original theory of these disturbances of language function. They suggest in this wide-ranging study that syntactic structure breaks down after damage to the brain because of specific impairments in the parsing processes and a general decrease in the amount of computational space that can be devoted to that function.

    Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension includes detailed single-case analyses and large-group studies, as well as a broad review of the literature on aphasia. It also provides introductions to syntactic structures and parsing for the reader unfamiliar with these subjects. It develops a general framework for viewing disorders in this area and for identifying a number of specific aspects of the breakdown of syntactic comprehension.The authors' richly detailed empirical linguistic database and their careful use of experimental materials enable them to bring the results of their research to bear on several aspects of theories of syntactic structure (Chomsky's theory) and parsing (the Berwick-Weinberg parser) and to use these theories to describe and explain aphasic phenomena. Moreover, the combination of population and group studies allows them to investigate the neurological basis of syntactic disorders in addition to the psychological and linguistic aspects.

    Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension is included in the series Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition, edited by John C. Marshall.

    • Hardcover $58.00