John S. Barlow

John S. Barlow, M.D., is a Neurophysiologist in the Neurology Service at Massachusetts General Hospital, Senior Research Associate in Neurology (Neurophysiology) at Harvard Medical School, and a Research Affiliate in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • The Electroencephalogram

    The Electroencephalogram

    Its Patterns and Origins

    John S. Barlow

    In this book, John Barlow describes an ingenious new hypothesis for a comprehensive model of the EEG that is able to emulate a large variety of known EEG patterns with few variables.

    Although the electroencephalogram—discovered more than a century ago—has been used for years as a non-invasive diagnostic tool, it is still poorly understood. In this book, John Barlow describes an ingenious new hypothesis for a comprehensive model of the EEG that is able to emulate a large variety of known EEG patterns with few variables.

    In contrast to previous hypotheses and models which have treated only selected EEG patterns (rhythmic activity such as alpha activity and sleep spindles seen largely as "filtered noise," or irregular activity, or certain types of epileptiform activity such as spikes) this approach, which is based on an oscillator with two separate input modulations of the extremes and the slopes of waves, covers all types of EEG patterns, and stems from specific features of the EEG itself rather than from arbitrary signals.

    Barlow describes the hypothesis in detail, then tests predictions for normal and abnormal EEGs with the aid of a hardware model and with specially developed methods of analysis. The hypothesis is further evaluated in the light of extensive reviews of other EEG models and methods of analysis and of the underlying anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of cerebral electrical activity. A technological section details the hardware model and the methodology for testing the hypothesis. Appendixes present some new approaches to traditional methods of EEG analysis and artifact minimization, areas in which Barlow has achieved international recognition.

    • Hardcover $120.00
    • Paperback $55.00

Contributor

  • Models of the Structural-Functional Organization of Certain Biological Systems

    I. M. Gelfand, V. S. Gurfinkel, S. V. Fomin, and M. L. Tsetlin

    This book was written in 1966 as a memorial tribute to Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bernstein, the eminent Russian pioneer in cybernetics. Representing the work of a number of contributors, it is made up of a collection of papers presenting models of various physiological systems. Together, the papers summarize a great deal of work not conveniently available elsewhere.

    The collection includes only that sort of model for which some real physiological system is the subject; constructions not having well-grounded roots in biology are omitted, and so are those that mathematicians might find simplistic and unlikely to evolve fruitfully. Since from the editors' point of view a model description and physiological experiment are consecutive stages of research, some of these chapters are purely theoretical, while others are of the Department of Theoretical Biology and the Committee on Information Sciences, University of Chicago, has provided not only current information on the topics discussed in the article but also a bibliography of current works and articles.

    Individual papers on the functioning of specific systems discuss the construction of models that correctly describe the functioning system. The postulates employed correspond to the real properties of the elements correspond to the real properties of the elements of the modeled system and to the interrelationship of the elements. The model is then refined to a level at which conclusions can be made that allow experimental verification. The ultimate goal in each case is, of course, to render predictable certain properties of the system not previously obvious and to allow the corresponding model to be utilized in gaining an understanding of the function of the system under investigation.

    Introduction. Mathematical Modeling of Mechanisms of the Central Nervous System • Part I: The Spreading of Excitation in Continuous Media and the Electrical Properties of Branching Structures – An Analysis of the Functional Properties of Dendrites in Relation to Their Structure: The Electrical Behavior of the Myocardium as a System and the Characteristics of the Cellular Membrane of the Heart; The Problem of the Electrical Properties of Syncytia; The Periodic Blocking of Impulses in Excitable Tissues • Part II: The Organization of Certain Parts of the Central Nervous System and the Modeling of Their Operation – Characteristics of the Respiratory Neurons of Different Levels of the Central Nervous System; A Model of a System of Neurons with Periodic Volley Activity Resistant to Random Afferent Influences; Some Special Features of Organization of the Cerebellar Cortex • Part III: The Regulations of Movements – Some Problems in the Analysis of Movements; An Analysis of Physiological Tremor by Means of a General-Purpose Computer; Concerning Tuning before Movement; The Control of Movements of the Joints and Kinesthetic of Respiratory Disturbances of the Erect Posture of Man as an example of the Organization of Interarticular Interaction. Index.

    • Hardcover $30.00
  • The Sense of Time

    An Electrophysiological Study of its Mechanism in Man

    Josef Holubar

    Despite the widespread general interest in the psychological and physiological aspects of the sense of time, there have been relatively few direct experimental explorations of its fundamental mechanisms in the brain. The possibility that rhythms in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of man, in particular the alpha rhythm of some 10 cycles per second, might in some way reflect fundamental timing in some way reflect fundamental timing mechanisms has occurred to a number of workers over the years. Early experimental findings that an increase in body temperature was accompanied both by an underestimation of time intervals and by an increase in the alpha rhythm was a more accurate measure of time intervals than were the subject's own estimates, lent support to such a notion.

    But some writers have gone further, proposing that the alpha rhythm itself is a specific manifestation of a rhythm for the measurement of time. The late Professor Norbert Wiener was a strong proponent of this concept, and it was also, an independently, with this notion that Dr. Holubář began his own work. His particular contribution was to combine the well-known effect of flicker or intermittent photic stimulation on the EEG with temporally conditioned galvanic skin responses (GSR). His remarkable findings, largely published in the Czech language, that the intervals of temporally conditioned GSRs could be specifically altered by flicker in a manner that is determined by the relation between the rates of flicker and the frequency of the alpha rhythm, have, however, largely escaped the attention of other workers. The present translation of Dr. Holubář's monograph on this subject makes his unique and challenging work available to a much wider audience.

    • Hardcover $12.00