John Van Maanen

  • The Mediators

    Deborah Kolb and John Van Maanen

    This is a study of what mediators actually do across agencies. The cases and settings suggest that mediator practice tends to follow predictable patterns in terms of roles, strategies, and relations with the disputing parties.Based on close field observation, Kolbe's s study shows how labor mediators in two government agencies, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service and a state agency of conciliation and arbitration, assist parties to resolve their contract disputes. One of the more surprising findings is that the state mediators tended to be "dealmakers," while Federal mediators were "orchestrators." The book also discusses meeting patterns, mediators and spokesmen, and the mistakes and errors in judgment and timing that affect the mediator's ability to aid the parties in the resolution of their disputes.

    • Hardcover $25.00
    • Paperback $10.95
  • Industrial Democracy at Sea

    Robert Schrank and John Van Maanen

    The book presents the accounts of three American merchant seamen who were taken on as crew members for the course of a voyage from the Pacific Northwest to Europe.

    Democratization of the workplace is a much vaunted goal in European countries, especially Scandinavia. But can it be achieved? Do increased participation and autonomy improve the quality of work life? Can productivity be increased this way? These questions form the basis for the evaluations in this book, a case study of the experimental democratization of working life aboard the Norwegian freighter, the Hoeg Mallard. The book presents the accounts of three American merchant seamen who were taken on as crew members for the course of a voyage from the Pacific Northwest to Europe. Their reactions and adjustments to democracy at sea were observed and recorded by a fourth American, reporter Sidney Roger. One of Roger's findings was that despite more open mixing among ranks, having a voice in work-detail operations, and being able to use such cruise-ship amenities as swimming pool, sauna, library, and bar, the seamen's life aboard ship appeared to be as dull and unrewarding as it was on more autocratic and less lavishly appointed merchant vessels. Robert Schrank relates these on-the-job observations to the general issues of industrial democracy and five scholars have contributed essays responding to the experiences recounted by Sidney Roger. These essays are by Richard E. Walton (Harvard Business School), William F. Whyte (New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations), Einar Thorsrud (Work Research Institutes, Oslo), Birger Viklund (Center for the Study of Working Life, Stockholm), and Shoshana Zuboff (Harvard Business School).

    Both the project and the book were sponsored by the Ford Foundation. Robert Schrank, who served as project manager for the Foundation's Worker Exchange Program, also edited American Workers Abroad, and is the author of Ten Thousand Working Days, both published by The MIT Press. Industrial Democracy at Sea is fifth in The MIT Press Series on Organization Studies, edited by John Van Maanen.

    • Hardcover $35.00

Contributor

  • Strategic Pragmatism

    Strategic Pragmatism

    The Culture of Singapore's Economics Development Board

    Edgar H. Schein

    foreword by Lester Thurow Per capita income in Singapore has gone from $500 to more than $20,000 in a little over twenty-five years. Edgar Schein, a social psychologist with a long and celebrated research interest in organizational studies, examines the cultural history of the key intstitution that spawned this economic miracle. Through interviews and full access to Singapore's Economic Development Board (EDB), Schein shows how economic development was successfully promoted. He delves into the individual relationships and the overall structure that contributed to the EDB's effectiveness in propelling Singapore, one of Asia's "little dragons" into the modern era. In his foreword, Lester Thurrow locates Schein's organizational and case-specific account within a larger economic and comparative framework. Over a period of two years, Schein studied how the EDB was created, the kind of leadership it provided, the management structure it used, the human resource policies it pursued, and how it influenced other organizations within the Singapore government. Schein sat in on EDB meetings and extensively interviewed current and former members of the board, Singapore's leaders who created the board, and businesspeople who have dealt with the board. His book intertwines the perspective of the board's members and its investor clients in an analysis that uses both organization and cross-cultural theory. Although there are currently studies of comparable Japanese and Korean organizations, this is the first detailed analysis of the internal structure and functioning of the economic development body of Singapore, a key player in the Asian and world markets.

    • Hardcover $55.00 £45.00
    • Paperback $30.00 £25.00
  • Front Stage, Backstage

    Front Stage, Backstage

    The Dramatic Structure of Labor Negotiations

    Raymond A. Friedman

    In this carefully detailed and rigorous study of the social processes of labor negotiations, the author uncovers the pressures and motivations felt by negotiators, showing why the bargaining process persists largely in its traditional form despite frequent calls for change.

    Raymond Friedman approaches labor negotiations with a conviction that negotiators are situated in a social network that greatly influences bargaining styles. In this carefully detailed and rigorous study of the social processes of labor negotiations, he uncovers the pressures and motivations felt by negotiators, showing why the bargaining process persists largely in its traditional form despite frequent calls for change. Friedman first focuses on the social structure of labor negotiations and the logic of the traditional negotiation process. He then looks at cases where the traditional rituals of negotiation were set aside and new forms emerged and, in the light of these examples, addresses the options for and obstacles to change.In an unusual twist Friedman describes the persistence of the traditional negotiation process by developing a dramaturgical theory in which negotiators are seen as actors who perform for teammates, constituents, and opponents. They try to convince others of their skill, loyalty, and dedication, while others expect them to play the role of opponent, representative, and leader. Friedman shows that the front-stage drama fulfills these needs and expectations, while backstage contacts between lead bargainers allow the two sides to communicate in private. The traditional labor negotiation process, he reveals, is an integrated system that allows for both private understanding and public conflict. Current efforts to change how labor and management negotiate are limited by the persistence of these roles, and are bound to fail if they do not account for the benefits as well as the flaws of the traditional rituals of negotiation. For negotiation scholars, Friedman's perspective provides an alternative to the rational-actor models that dominate the field; his dramaturgical theory is applicable to any negotiations done by groups, especially ones that face political pressures from constituents. For labor scholars, this is the first integrated theory of the negotiation process since Walton and McKersies's classic text, and one that helps unite the four elements of their model. For sociologists, the book provides an example of how a dramaturgical perspective can be used to explain the logic and persistence of a social institution. And practitioners will appreciate this explanation of why change is so difficult. Organization Studies series

    • Hardcover $48.00 £40.00
    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00
  • Symbolic Communication

    Symbolic Communication

    Signifying Calls and the Police Response

    Peter K. Manning

    This first major empirical work on the semiotics of social action goes a long way toward answering substantive, theoretical and pragmatic questions on how codes actually operate in a specific social setting. It underscores the important yet often ignored role of the police as "sign" or "information workers." Calls to the police represent a rich variety of human troubles, concerns, and needs by focusing on how police handle calls from the public, how they ascertain what a call means and what should be done with it, and how this is transformed through subsystems within the organization, Peter Manning provides a novel way of looking at organizational communication. Symbolic Communication provides examples of how members of an organization interpret their environment - in this instance, how the meaning of a call to the police is transformed as it moves across the boundaries of the organization (a transformation that involves a series of codings and recodings ensuring a continuous loose linkage of organization and environment). Manning shows why the police act in ways that differ from the way citizens and politicians would have them act, revealing the uncertainties that surround a policy agency's responsiveness. And he points out how today's computer technologies constrain the coding process, limiting in particular the effectiveness of the 911 systems used in most of our major cities.

    Symbolic Communication is included in the Organization Studies series, edited by John van Maanen.

    • Hardcover $52.00
    • Paperback $30.00 £25.00
  • The Workplace Within

    The Workplace Within

    Psychodynamics of Organizational Life

    Larry Hirschhorn

    In this revealing study, Larry Hirschhorn examines the rituals, or social defenses, organizations develop to cope with change. Using extended ease studies from offices, factories, and social services, he describes why these often irrational practices that fragment and injure individuals within the workplace exist, how they operate, and how they can be reshaped to enhance people's work experience.

    • Hardcover $26.00 £22.00
    • Paperback $35.00 £28.00
  • Sons of the Machine

    Case Studies of Social Change in the Workplace

    George E. F. Lombard and Charles H. Savage, Jr.

    Sons of the Machine offers a humane and cogent look at industrial culture in Latin America.

    Sons of the Machine offers a humane and cogent look at industrial culture in Latin America. Through first-hand studies of the processes of social change at three Colombian factories it counters both literary and academic notions of "industrial man." It is a book that grew from Charles Savage's frustration and deep curiosity about the alienation among men and of men from their work in the oilfields of South America in the 1950s. Turning away from the business schools' and management scientists' answers, Savage undertook case studies of different sites in Colombia at different stages of industrial development. Visiting and living in these locations - Santuario, La Blanca, and Medellin-from 1960 to 1972, he laid the foundations for this moving and insightful portrait of the development of industrial man. Sons of the Machine reveals the lives of the workers and their bosses in La Nueva, one of the small potteries in Santuario, in the single factory (also a pottery) in La Blanca, and in the menswear factory of El Dandy in the large metropolitan center of Medellin. It shows that among the issues that inevitably arise in the process of industrialization are conflict between management's preferred organization of production and the worker's social organization both in an out of the workplace, the conflict of efficiency and standardization with craft values, and the tension caused by the introduction of new technology. The result is a rich portrayal of the process of structural change in the societies and economies of village, town, and city. The studies show that these changes sometimes occur in rapid bursts during a short period of time rather than slowly and continuously over long periods as the conventional wisdom holds.

    George F. F. Lombard has revived Savage's work, drawn his conclusions together in the context of recent scholarship, and provided a substantial introduction to this book. Sons of the Machine is included in the Organization Studies Series, edited by John van Maanen.

    • Hardcover $30.00
  • Disorganized Crime

    Illegal Markets and the Mafia

    Peter Reuter

    Winner of the 9984 Leslie T. Wilkins Award for the best book in criminology and criminal justice. Bookmaking, numbers, and loansharking are reputed to be major sources of revenue for organized crime, controlled by the "visible hand" of violence. For years this belief has formed the basis of government policy toward illegal markets. Drawing on police files, confiscated records, and interviews with police, prosecutors, and criminal informants, Reuter systematically refutes the notion that the Mafia, by using political connections and the threat of violence, controls the major illegal markets. Instead, he suggests that the cost of suppressing competition has ensured that these markets are populated with small enterprises, many of them marginal and ephemeral.

    Disorganized Crime is included in The MIT Press Series on Organization Studies, edited by John Van Maanen.

    • Hardcover $27.50
    • Paperback $10.95
  • Control in the Police Organization

    Maurice Punch

    Looking behind the facade of tightly structured tables of organization and chains of command, this group of studies addresses the key question of how the police go about policing themselves in the real world. The contributors' point of departure is the documented evidence that the men and women on the streets enjoy considerable autonomy and discretion that make strict accountability and close supervision the exception and mutual back-scratching in the lower ranks the rule, where the code of silence and the falsified report cover up widespread work avoidance, short-cut methods, illicit violence, and pay-offs. In spite of this, there are clearly constraints on police behavior-institutional controls, formal or informal, that keep the police under rein to a greater or lesser extent. The book probes the various sources of organizational control, including formal internal disciplinary regulations, the norms and values of the occupational culture, external legal constraints, and the overriding need to prevent scandals. It also suggests ways of improving organizational control through managerial reforms that bring to key positions not just proficient bureaucrats but leaders at all levels within the force who possess insight and empathy into the inescapable dilemmas of the men and women on the line where the real police decisions are made. The book is interdisciplinary and international in its scope, representing the research and informed views of sociologists, students of management and public policy, and police from the United States, Great Britain, Belgium, and The Netherlands.

    The book is fourth in The MIT Press Series on Organization Studies.

    • Hardcover $48.00
  • Strategies for Change

    The Future of French Society

    Michel Crozier

    Although Crozier's specific focus in this book is on the workings and nonworkings of French society, the essence of his analysis is valid for all advanced societies in their search for revitalization and strategies for change. Indeed, his opening chapter addresses "The Crisis of Western Society" and its increasing complexity, uncertainty, and anarchy, and later passages in the book will strike American readers as pertinent to their own recent and ongoing political debates.The Future of French Society expresses a spirited opposition to the practices and goals of the bureaucracy-its enthusiasm for indiscriminate regulation, its passion for monopolizing power, its craze for self-aggrandizement and special privileges. It identifies the three main sources impeding change in French society: the systems of education, public administration, and recruitment of leaders. The book then proposes strategies for change that are strictly anti-utopian and self-limiting, thus avoiding the opposing extremes of centralized technocracy and revolution.Michel Crozier is Director of the Centre de Sociologie des Organisations in Paris, and one of the world's leading authorities on modern social organization. The book is the second volume in the MIT Press Series on Organization Studies, edited by John Van Maanen.

    • Hardcover $35.00
  • Competition and Control At Work

    Competition and Control At Work

    Stephen Hill

    Taking the underlying competition of interests between worker and employer as his starting point, Hill documents the evolution of new forms of managerial organization designed to enhance and legitimate the employer's control over the worker.

    "The central problem facing modern business is the impossibility of abolishing the conditions which create conflicts in the workplace without destroying the present form of the economy." This is the author's controversial conclusion to a wide-ranging study that draws on historical and comparative studies of labor and managerial organization, modern theoretical and empirical accounts of class structure and the role of the state in the economy, the economic literature dealing with trade unions, labor markets, and certain aspects of economic theory. Taking the underlying competition of interests between worker and employer as his starting point, Hill documents the evolution of new forms of managerial organization designed to enhance and legitimate the employer's control over the worker. A central theme is the precarious nature of the industrial peace given the ineradicable opposition of interests which characterizes most modern forms of economic organizations. The major part of the book places discussions of empirical material, particularly new evidence on European industry and comparative material on the United States and Japan, within a coherent theoretical framework.

    The book inaugurates The MIT Press Series on Organization Studies, edited by John Van Maanen, Professor of Organizational Psychology and Management, Sloan School, MIT.

    • Hardcover
    • Paperback $35.00 £28.00