Lee Rainwater

Lee Rainwater was Professor of Sociology Emeritus at Harvard University and Cofounder and Research Director of the Luxembourg Income Study.

  • The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy

    Lee Rainwater and William L. Yancey

    In March of 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, then Assistant Secretary of Labor, wrote a report on the condition of the American Negro entitled The Negro Family: The Case for national Action, otherwise known as the Moynihan Report. It gave voice to views that Moynihan had been considering for over a year and reflected his belief that policy making in the government should make greater use of the social sciences for problem diagnosis and description. This book is an inquiry into the political stir caused by the appearance of the Moynihan Report.

    The authors begin with two observations: first, the content of the Report was neither new nor startling; and second, it was instantly the focus of intense political debate, with presidential endorsement on one hand and important administration and academic objection on the other. How does “nothing new” generate such heat? The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy deals with the complexities of formulating national policy on our most sensitive domestic issue and with what can happen to social science information as it makes its way through the political system.

    The Moynihan Report signaled a change in governmental thinking on the civil rights movement, shifting the emphasis from law to living conditions. Moynihan's central point – the absence of a strong male figure in the Negro family and the consequent loss in family stability – was an outgrowth of considerable accumulated social science research dating from as long as thirty years ago. The authors view the Report as a political stimulus that provided an opportunity to examine both the complexity of controversy and the political context in which it appears. They rely primarily on face-to-face interviews with the principal participants in the controversy, with the additional aid of an extensive file of press clippings and their own experiences in the events described.

    After giving an introductory examination of the problem, the authors consider the political situation at the time the Report was submitted and the intricate composition of current political attitudes on the civil rights movement. Moynihan's strategy and the Report itself are then treated, followed by discussions of reactions to the Report in the government and in the press, and finally, the apotheosis of the controversy and the publicity about it. The Report itself is included, as well as the documents pertaining to the controversy.

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  • Planning for a Nation of Cities

    Planning for a Nation of Cities

    Sam Bass Warner, Jr.

    In a series of short, to-the-point reports and policy papers, this group of researchers goes directly to the sprawling and tangled problems of the still largely unexplored urban world. With a mixed sense of crisis and confidence, the “nation of cities” emerging on this continent is tentatively and provisionally mapped out by such well-known trail-blazers in this field as Gunnar Mydral, Jean Gottmnn, and John Dyckman. Among others. They confront the challenge of the city at the level of current planning, local and national. They look beyond the (necessary) first experiments and immediate expedients of urban renewal and the antipoverty program to the eventual trillion-dollar transformations that at this point can be discussed only in an attitude of scholarly detachment.

    As John Dyckman points out, the interaction of cities (with their satellites and regional fields of influence) will constrict the possibilities of independent economic action on the part of any one city. The federal government will be forced to set the limits of intercity competition, contrary to the ingrained traditions of Chamber-of-Commerce boosterism, congressional pork-barreling, and self-interested industrial development.

    Beyond the difficulties, there are hopes: of providing full urban employment, not with make-work but with satisfying and fulfilling jobs; of financing the amenities of the city through a balance between subsidy and user support; of effecting integration (racial and regional) of the neighborhoods and schools through economic planning; of finally providing choice in urban life, beyond the restrictions of bare necessity.

    With the new federal programs, city and social workers are themselves undergoing a sort of on-the-job “retraining.” It is the authors' hope that this book will be used as the basis of work sessions by administrators, local planners, social workers, legislators, and active citizens. It does not “talk down” to an imaginary audience; these discussions originated with the contributors addressing each other – and since they represent such diverse specialties, they took care to be understood by one another and by all who are concerned with the realistic of the city.

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