Murray Eden

  • Engineering and Living Systems

    David D. Rutstein and Murray Eden

    “Our knowledge of living systems has been based, for the most part, on the tripod of anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology. The contributions of the physical and engineering sciences and mathematics have been relatively few, and their interrelationships with biology and medicine have been casual ones. Moreover, for the last quarter century, precisely measured social and behavioral science has begun to contribute to our health and to the prevention and treatment of disease. It is the purpose of this book to indicate how the biology and medicine of the future can be built on a foundation consisting of all of these disciplines in order better to understand the nature of health and disease in the individual and to design more viable and complete medical care programs.”

    The proposed program points up the need for an administrative structure to aid the flow of concepts, ideas, knowledge, and technology among those concerned both within and without the university. The kinds of experts needed to bridge the existing gaps between the disciplines are defined. Educational programs are outlined for full-time specialists, research participants, and practitioners in both engineering and medicine. A careful description is given of the stepwise process, including interaction with industry to apply development in the engineering sense to biology and medicine. A detailed example of the application of systems analysis and operations research to the development of a specific medical care program is included.

    This book examines the general principles learned during the exploration of a joint program between Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which was summarized by the authors in a Report to the National Academy of Engineering. The authors recognized the impossibility of providing specific recommendations for the future in the many fields comprised by engineering and living systems. Cooperation was obtained of outstanding experts on the two faculties who prepared sixteen task group reports under the following headings: artificial internal organs; bioengineering curricula; biological control systems; continuing education; diagnostic instrumentation; diagnostic processes; image processing and visualization techniques; medical care microsystems; neurophysiology; organ and cell culture and storage; physiological monitoring; physiological systems analysis; regionalization of health services (macrosystems); sensory aids; skeletal prostheses; and subcellular engineering. The task group reports, included in toto in this book, provide the documentation for the general conclusions of the authors.

    This book supplements existing medical programs with a new research approach to increase fundamental knowledge, and points the way to better medical care through more efficient application of engineering, technology, and systems development.

    • Hardcover $25.00
  • Recognizing Patterns

    Studies in Living and Automatic Systems

    Paul A. Kolers and Murray Eden

    The common bond between the student of living systems and the engineer in the study of pattern recognition is the general theme that binds this collection of papers together. The two types of systems – living and automatic – certainly share certain underlying principles, and it is these that should be uncovered. Without making simplistic or mechanistic analogies or building crude models relating one type of system to the other, underlying the basic principles they share will remain a source of insight of high potential.

    In order to achieve the broadest cross-communication between the two groups, “pattern” is here defined in the most general way recognizable by the two groups. More than this, such a definition is likely to lead to the discovery of more general principles and, in the long run, to more practical results. For example, the limited success obtained in the narrowly defined field of two- dimensional visual recognition by automatic means may be due to its very conceptual narrowness – a test as to whether a “thing” fits an idealized templet largely ignores the intrinsic interrelationships of its parts. A wider study of these interrelationships – the general identification of patters as a series of relationships – not only is likely to lead to broader principles but will eventually lead to finer solutions of particular problems as well, including that of two-dimensional visual recognition.

    However general the outlook and assumptions of the contributors, they report here on their own specific research interests and firmly base themselves on empirical results. Although they do not pretend to cover the whole area of this fast-growing field, among them they are able to skate out its present boundaries.

    Their thesis – that engineers could build better machines if they used more of the principles of living systems and that students of living systems could benefit by using certain concepts of the engineers – is illustrated by the unity of approach that emerges from the variety of researchers reported on in the individual chapters. The first chapter, “Some Psychological Aspects of Pattern Recognition,” by Paul A. Kolers, reviews some of the concepts germane to human pattern recognition and shows why some typical models cannot be correct. “What We Do When We Speak,” by Samuel Jay Keyser and Morris Halle, describes the rules of syntax and phonology in the recognition of speech. The other chapters are “Neurophysiology of the Visual System,” by Shin-Ho Chung; “Stimulus Transformations in the Peripheral Auditory System,” by William M. Siebert; “Handwriting Generation and Recognition,” by Murray Eden; “Character Recognition in an Experimental Reading Machine for the Blind,: by Samuel J. Mason and Jon K. Clemens; “Contextual Understanding by Computers,” by Joseph Weizenbaum; and a final summarizing chapter by Murray Eden, “Other Pattern-Recognition Problems and Some Generalizations.”

    • Hardcover $13.95