Patrick W. Langley

Pat Langley is Associate Professor, Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine.

  • Scientific Discovery

    Scientific Discovery

    Computational Explorations of the Creative Process

    Patrick W. Langley, Herbert A. Simon, Gary Bradshaw, and Jan M. Zytkow

    Scientific discovery is often regarded as romantic and creative—and hence unanalyzable—whereas the everyday process of verifying discoveries is sober and more suited to analysis. Yet this fascinating exploration of how scientific work proceeds argues that however sudden the moment of discovery may seem, the discovery process can be described and modeled.

    Using the methods and concepts of contemporary information-processing psychology (or cognitive science) the authors develop a series of artificial-intelligence programs that can simulate the human thought processes used to discover scientific laws. The programs—BACON, DALTON, GLAUBER, and STAHL—are all largely data-driven, that is, when presented with series of chemical or physical measurements they search for uniformities and linking elements, generating and checking hypotheses and creating new concepts as they go along.

    Scientific Discovery examines the nature of scientific research and reviews the arguments for and against a normative theory of discovery; describes the evolution of the BACON programs, which discover quantitative empirical laws and invent new concepts; presents programs that discover laws in qualitative and quantitative data; and ties the results together, suggesting how a combined and extended program might find research problems, invent new instruments, and invent appropriate problem representations. Numerous prominent historical examples of discoveries from physics and chemistry are used as tests for the programs and anchor the discussion concretely in the history of science.

    • Hardcover $27.50
    • Paperback $8.75 £6.99
  • Production System Models of Learning and Development

    Production System Models of Learning and Development

    David Klahr, Patrick W. Langley, and Robert T. Neches

    There have been many scattered studies on production systems since they were first proposed as computational models of human problem-solving behavior by Allen Newell some twenty years ago, but this is the first book to focus exclusively on these important models of human cognition, collecting and giving many of the best examples of current research.

    Cognitive psychologists have found the production systems class of computer simulation models to be one of the most direct ways to cast complex theories of human intelligence. There have been many scattered studies on production systems since they were first proposed as computational models of human problem-solving behavior by Allen Newell some twenty years ago, but this is the first book to focus exclusively on these important models of human cognition, collecting and giving many of the best examples of current research.

    In the first chapter, Robert Neches, Pat Langley, and David Klahr provide an overview of the fundamental issues involved in using production systems as a medium for theorizing about cognitive processes, emphasizing their theoretical power.

    The remaining chapters take up learning by doing and learning by understanding, discrimination learning, learning through incremental refinement, learning by chunking, procedural earning, and learning by composition. A model of cognitive development called BAIRN is described, and a final chapter reviews John Anderson's ACT theory and discusses how it can be used in intelligent tutoring systems, including one that teaches LISP programming skills.

    Contributors Yuichiro Anzai (Hokkaido University, Japan), Paul Rosenbloom (Stanford) and Allen Newell (Carnegie-Mellon), Stellan Ohlsson (University of Pittsburgh), Clayton Lewis (University of Colorado, Boulder), Iain Wallace and Kevin Bluff (Deakon University, Australia), and John Anderson (Carnegie-Mellon).

    Production System Models of Learning and Development is included in the series Computational Models of Cognition and Perception, edited by Jerome A. Feldman, Patrick J. Hayes, and David E.Rumelhart.

    A Bradford Book.

    • Hardcover $75.00 £62.00