Steven E. Miller

Steven E. Miller is director of the International Security Program at the Belfer Center.

  • The Next Great War?

    The Next Great War?

    The Roots of World War I and the Risk of U.S.-China Conflict

    Richard N. Rosecrance and Steven E. Miller

    Experts consider how the lessons of World War I can help prevent U.S.–China conflict.

    A century ago, Europe's diplomats mismanaged the crisis triggered by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and the continent plunged into World War I, which killed millions, toppled dynasties, and destroyed empires. Today, as the hundredth anniversary of the Great War prompts renewed debate about the war's causes, scholars and policy experts are also considering the parallels between the present international system and the world of 1914. Are China and the United States fated to follow in the footsteps of previous great power rivals? Will today's alliances drag countries into tomorrow's wars? Can leaders manage power relationships peacefully? Or will East Asia's territorial and maritime disputes trigger a larger conflict, just as rivalries in the Balkans did in 1914?

    In The Next Great War?, experts reconsider the causes of World War I and explore whether the great powers of the twenty-first century can avoid the mistakes of Europe's statesmen in 1914 and prevent another catastrophic conflict. They find differences as well as similarities between today's world and the world of 1914—but conclude that only a deep understanding of those differences and early action to bring great powers together will likely enable the United States and China to avoid a great war.

    Contributors Alan Alexandroff, Graham Allison, Richard N. Cooper, Charles S. Maier, Steven E. Miller, Joseph S. Nye Jr., T. G. Otte, David K. Richards, Richard N. Rosecrance, Kevin Rudd, Jack Snyder, Etel Solingen, Arthur A. Stein, Stephen Van Evera

    • Hardcover $34.00 £27.00
  • Do Democracies Win Their Wars?

    Do Democracies Win Their Wars?

    An International Security Reader

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Important contributions from both sides of the debate over the relationship between democracy and military victory.

    In recent years, a new wave of scholarship has argued that democracies have unique advantages that enable them to compete vigorously in international politics. Challenging long-held beliefs—some of which go back to Thucydides' account of the clash between democratic Athens and authoritarian Sparta—that democracy is a liability in the harsh world of international affairs, many scholars now claim that democracies win most of their wars. This research suggests that democracies emerge victorious because they prudently choose to fight wars that they can win, and because they can marshal more resources, make better decisions, and muster public support for their military campaigns. Critics counter that democracy itself makes little difference in war and that other factors, such as overall power, determine whether a country tastes victory or defeat. In some cases, such as the Vietnam War, democracy may even have contributed to defeat.

    The book includes crucial contributions to the debate over democracy and military victory, presenting important theoretical, conceptual, and empirical arguments.

    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • Contending with Terrorism

    Contending with Terrorism

    Roots, Strategies, and Responses

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Experts explore the sources of contemporary terrorism, what terrorists want, and how the United States and other countries should respond.

    Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, scholars and policy analysts in national security have turned their attention to terrorism, considering not only how to prevent future attacks but also the roots of the problem. This book offers some of the latest research in terrorism studies. The contributors examine the sources of contemporary terrorism, discussing the impact of globalization, the influence of religious beliefs, and the increasing dissatisfaction felt by the world's powerless. They consider the strategies and motivations of terrorists, offering contending perspectives on whether or not terrorists can be said to achieve their goals; explore different responses to the threat of terrorism, discussing such topics as how the United States can work more effectively with its allies; and contemplate the future of al-Qaida, asking if its networked structure is an asset or a liability.

    The essays in Contending with Terrorism address some of the central topics in the analysis of contemporary terrorism. They promise to guide future policy and inspire further research into one of most important security issues of the twenty-first century.

    Contributors Max Abrahms, Daniel Byman, Erica Chenoweth, Audrey Kurth Cronin, Renée de Nevers, Mette Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, Hillel Frisch, Calvert Jones, Andrew Kydd, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Elizabeth McClellan, Nicholas Miller, Assaf Moghadam, Michael Mousseau, Rysia Murphy, William Rose, Paul Staniland, Robert Trager, Barbara Walter, Dessislava Zagorcheva

    • Paperback $32.00 £25.00
  • Going Nuclear

    Going Nuclear

    Nuclear Proliferation and International Security in the 21st Century

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    These essays offer conceptual, historical, and analytical perspectives on one of the most significant challenges to global security in the twenty-first century: controlling nuclear proliferation.

    The spread of nuclear weapons is one of the most significant challenges to global security in the twenty-first century. Limiting the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials may be the key to preventing a nuclear war or a catastrophic act of nuclear terrorism. Going Nuclear offers conceptual, historical, and analytical perspectives on current problems in controlling nuclear proliferation. It includes essays that examine why countries seek nuclear weapons as well as studies of the nuclear programs of India, Pakistan, and South Africa. The final section of the book offers recommendations for responding to the major contemporary proliferation challenges: keeping nuclear weapons and materials out of the hands of terrorists, ensuring that countries that renounce nuclear weapons never change their minds, and cracking down on networks that illicitly spread nuclear technologies.

    Nearly all the chapters in this book have been previously published in the journal International Security. It contains a new preface and one chapter commissioned specifically for the volume, Matthew Bunn's "Nuclear Terrorism: A Strategy for Prevention."

    Contributors Samina Ahmed, Chaim Braun, Matthew Bunn, Christopher F. Chyba, Matthew Fuhrmann, Šumit Ganguly, S. Paul Kapur, Ariel E. Levite, Peter Liberman, Austin Long, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Alexander H. Montgomery, Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova, William C. Potter, Whitney Raas, Scott D. Sagan, Etel Solingen

    • Paperback $34.00 £27.00
  • Primacy and Its Discontents

    Primacy and Its Discontents

    American Power and International Stability

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Experts consider whether American primacy will endure or if the future holds a multipolar world of several great powers.

    The unprecedented military, economic, and political power of the United States has led some observers to declare that we live in a unipolar world in which America enjoys primacy or even hegemony. At the same time public opinion polls abroad reveal high levels of anti-Americanism, and many foreign governments criticize U.S. policies. Primacy and Its Discontents explores the sources of American primacy, including the uses of U.S. military power, and the likely duration of unipolarity. It offers theoretical arguments for why the rest of the world will—or will not—align against the United States. Several chapters argue that the United States is not immune to the long-standing tendency of states to balance against power, while others contend that wise U.S. policies, the growing role of international institutions, and the spread of liberal democracy can limit anti-American balancing. The final chapters debate whether countries are already engaging in "soft balancing" against the United States. The contributors offer alternative prescriptions for U.S. foreign policy, ranging from vigorous efforts to maintain American primacy to acceptance of a multipolar world of several great powers.

    Contributors Gerard Alexander, Stephen Brooks, John G. Ikenberry, Christopher Layne, Keir Lieber, John Owen IV, Robert Pape, T. V. Paul, Barry Posen, Kenneth Waltz, William Wohlforth

    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00
  • Offense, Defense, and War

    Offense, Defense, and War

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    An overview of offense-defense theory, which argues that the relative ease of offense and defense varies in international politics.

    Offense-defense theory argues that the relative ease of offense and defense varies in international politics. When the offense has the advantage, military conquest becomes easier and war is more likely; the opposite is true when the defense has the advantage. The balance between offense and defense depends on geography, technology, and other factors. This theory, and the body of related theories, has generated much debate and research over the past twenty-five years.This book presents a comprehensive overview of offense-defense theory. It includes contending views on the theory and some of the most recent attempts to refine and test it.

    • Paperback $37.00 £29.00
  • The Russian Military

    The Russian Military

    Power and Policy

    Steven E. Miller and Dmitri Trenin

    Russian military capacity remains a major consideration for global security even in the post-Soviet era. This book assesses today's Russian military and analyzes its possible future direction. The contributors—experts on the subject from both Russia and the West—consider not only how Russia has built its military capacity but also the policies and doctrines that have shaped Russia's defense posture. They discuss such topics as the downsizing of the Russian military, Russia's use of military power in regional conflicts, and the management of Russia's nuclear weapons.

    For more than a decade, Russian leaders have struggled to formulate security and defense policies that protect Russia's borders and project Russia's influence. The contributors to The Russian Military find that the choices Russian leaders have made have been significantly influenced by the military reforms Russia has attempted to implement since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The protracted and intense debate over military reform has been—and will continue to be—decisive in shaping Russian military capacity.

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • New Global Dangers

    New Global Dangers

    Changing Dimensions of International Security

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    An analysis of new global security concerns in the post-September 11 world, including weapons of mass destruction, nonmilitary dangers, and transnational actors.

    Despite growing concerns after September 11, 2001, over the global terrorist threat and the spread of weapons of mass destruction, international security no longer hinges only on arms control and the prevention of war. Nonmilitary concerns, including emerging infectious diseases, environmental degradation, demographic trends, and humanitarian catastrophes, also represent significant threats to global stability. In this book, leading analysts offer an overview of critical security dangers facing the world today.

    The book looks first at the relationship between weapons and security, discussing such aspects of proliferation as "nuclear entrepreneurship" in Russia and the threat of biological warfare. It then examines nonmilitary security concerns, including resource scarcity, migration, HIV/AIDS in Africa, and why humanitarian assistance sometimes does more harm than good. Finally, it looks at the role of transnational actors, including terrorist groups, nongovernmental organizations, and the privatized military industry.

    • Paperback $7.75 £6.99
  • Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, Revised Edition

    Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, Revised Edition

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Understanding the roots and causes of ethnic animosity; analyses of recent events in Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Somalia, and the former Soviet Union.

    Most recent wars have been complex and bloody internal conflicts driven to a significant degree by nationalism and ethnic animosity. Since the end of the Cold War, dozens of wars—in Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Somalia, the former Soviet Union, and elsewhere—have killed or displaced millions of people. Understanding and controlling these wars has become one of the most important and frustrating tasks for scholars and political leaders.This revised and expanded edition of Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict contains essays from some of the world's leading analysts of nationalism, ethnic conflict, and internal war. The essays from the first edition have been updated and supplemented by analyses of recent conflicts and new research on the resolution of ethnic and civil wars. The first part of the book addresses the roots of nationalistic and ethnic wars, focusing in particular on the former Yugoslavia. The second part assesses options for international action, including the use of force and the deployment of peacekeeping troops. The third part examines political challenges that often complicate attempts to prevent or end internal conflicts, including refugee flows and the special difficulties of resolving civil wars.

    • Paperback $37.00 £29.00
  • The Rise of China

    The Rise of China

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Analysts debate the international implications of a newly powerful China.

    China's relentless economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s heralded its emergence as a great power in world politics. As its economy expanded, China seemed poised to become the second-largest economy in the world. At the same time, it modernized its military and adopted a more assertive diplomatic posture. Many observers have begun to debate the international implications of China's rise. Some analysts argue that China will inevitably pose a threat to peace and security in East Asia. A few even predict a new cold war between Beijing and Washington. Others claim that a powerful China can remain benign. None believes that China can be ignored. The essays in this volume assess China's emerging capabilities and intentions, debate the impact that China will have on security in the Asia-Pacific region, and propose polices for the United States to adopt in its relations with China.

    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00
  • America's Strategic Choices, Revised Edition

    America's Strategic Choices, Revised Edition

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Contending perspectives on the future of US grand strategy.

    More than a decade has passed since the end of the Cold War, but the United States has yet to reach a consensus on a coherent approach to the international use of American power. The essays in this volume present contending perspectives on the future of U.S. grand strategy. U.S. policy options include primacy, cooperative security, selective engagement, and retrenchment. This revised edition includes additional and more recent analysis and advocacy of these options. The volume includes the Clinton administration's National Security Strategy for a New Century, the most recent official statement of American grand strategy, so readers can compare proposed strategies with the official U.S. government position.

    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • Rational Choice and Security Studies

    Rational Choice and Security Studies

    Stephen Walt and His Critics

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Opposing views on the merits of formal rational choice approaches as they have been applied to international security studies.

    Formal theories and rational choice methods have become increasingly prominent in most social sciences in the past few decades. Proponents of formal theoretical approaches argue that these methods are more scientific and sophisticated than other approaches, and that formal methods have already generated significant theoretical progress. As more and more social scientists adopt formal theoretical approaches, critics have argued that these methods are flawed and that they should not become dominant in most social-science disciplines. Rational Choice and Security Studies presents opposing views on the merits of formal rational choice approaches as they have been applied in the subfield of international security studies. This volume includes Stephen Walt's article "Rigor or Rigor Mortis? Rational Choice and Security Studies," critical replies from prominent political scientists, and Walt's rejoinder to his critics. Walt argues that formal approaches have not led to creative new theoretical explanations, that they lack empirical support, and that they have contributed little to the analysis of important contemporary security problems. In their replies, proponents of rational choice approaches emphasize that formal methods are essential for achieving theoretical consistency and precision.

    • Paperback $4.75 £3.99
  • Theories of War and Peace

    Theories of War and Peace

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    New approaches to understanding war and peace in the changing international system.

    What causes war? How can wars be prevented? Scholars and policymakers have sought the answers to these questions for centuries. Although wars continue to occur, recent scholarship has made progress toward developing more sophisticated and perhaps more useful theories on the causes and prevention of war. This volume includes essays by leading scholars on contemporary approaches to understanding war and peace. The essays include expositions, analyses, and critiques of some of the more prominent and enduring explanations of war. Several authors discuss realist theories of war, which focus on the distribution of power and the potential for offensive war. Others examine the prominent hypothesis that the spread of democracy will usher in an era of peace. In light of the apparent increase in nationalism and ethnic conflict, several authors present hypotheses on how nationalism causes war and how such wars can be controlled. Contributors also engage in a vigorous debate on whether international institutions can promote peace. In a section on war and peace in the changing international system, several authors consider whether rising levels of international economic independence and environmental scarcity will influence the likelihood of war.

    • Paperback $47.00 £37.00
  • Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict

    Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict

    Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Addresses the roots of nationalist and ethnic wars and explores options for preventing and resolving such conflicts.

    Most of the wars of the 1990s have been complex and bloody internal conflicts driven to a significant degree by nationalism and ethnic animosity. Dozens of wars—in Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, the former Soviet Union, and elsewhere—have killed or displaced millions of people. Scholars and diplomats have been frustrated in their attempts to understand and control these wars. The first part of Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict addresses the roots of nationalist and ethnic wars, focusing in particular on the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Union, and Kashmir. The second part of the book, which explores options for preventing and resolving such conflicts, develops proposals for international action ranging from military intervention to partition to a reconsideration of the idea of the state in Africa.

    • Paperback $25.00
  • East Asian Security

    East Asian Security

    Michael E. Brown, Steven E. Miller, and Sean M. Lynn-Jones

    The implications of the rapid growth of East Asian countries in the post-Cold War world.

    The future of East Asian security has become a critically important topic in the post-Cold War world. Virtually all of the Asia-Pacific countries are enjoying rapid economic growth, but many remain wary of their neighbors. Unlike every other region of the world, East Asia's military spending continues to accelerate. East Asian Security addresses some of the most important strategic questions about the future of the region.

    • Paperback $33.00 £26.00
  • Debating the Democratic Peace

    Debating the Democratic Peace

    Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Are democracies less likely to go to war than other kinds of states? This question is of tremendous importance in both academic and policy-making circles and one that has been debated by political scientists for years. The Clinton administration, in particular, has argued that the United States should endeavor to promote democracy around the world. This timely reader includes some of the most influential articles in the debate that have appeared in the journal International Security during the past two years, adding two seminal pieces published elsewhere to make a more balanced and complete collection, suitable for classroom use.

    • Paperback $40.00 £30.00
  • Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy

    Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy

    Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material

    Owen R. Coté, Jr., Graham Allison, Steven E. Miller, and Richard A Falkenrath

    This study by Graham Allison and three colleagues at Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs warns that containing the leakage of nuclear materials—and keeping them out of the hands of groups hostile to the United States—is our nation's highest security priority.

    What if the bomb that exploded in Oklahoma City or New York's World Trade Center had used 100 pounds of highly enriched uranium? The destruction would have been far more vast. This danger is not so remote: the recipe for making such a bomb is simple, and soon the ingredients might be easily attained. Thousands of nuclear weapons and hundreds of tons of weapons-grade uranium and plutonium from the weapons complex of the former Soviet Union, poorly guarded and poorly accounted for, could soon leak on to a vast emerging nuclear black market.This study by Graham Allison and three colleagues at Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs warns that containing the leakage of nuclear materials—and keeping them out of the hands of groups hostile to the United States—is our nation's highest security priority. As the most open society on a shrinking planet, the United States has no reliable defense against smuggled weapons fashioned from black-market materials by a determined state or terrorist group. Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy highlights the fact that the only way to combat the threat is by preventing nuclear leakage in the first place. Its message is both timely and urgent: it outlines the new nuclear danger and details how to reshape U.S. national security policy to deal with these dangers.

    • Paperback $26.00 £20.00
  • Global Dangers

    Global Dangers

    Changing Dimensions of International Security

    Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller

    The essays collected in Global Dangers provide both conceptual analysis and empirical assessment of the environment, migration, and nationalism as sources of conflict. The East-West confrontation that dominated the international security agenda during the Cold War has largely receded from view. Revealed in its wake is a different set of dangers, not really new but previously overshadowed by Cold War preoccupations. Global Dangers examines three such potential threats to peace: environmental problems, including access to scarce resources and population pressures; international migration; and nationalism. These issues are global in scope, persistent in nature, and potent in their implications. It is tragically clear that they can give rise to political dispute and to violent conflict.

    Contributors V. P. Gagnon, Peter H. Gleick, Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, F. Stephen Larrabee, Miriam R. Lowi, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Steven E. Miller, Barry R. Posen, Richard H. Ullman, Stephen Van Evera, Myron Weiner

    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00
  • Perils of Anarchy

    Perils of Anarchy

    Contemporary Realism and International Security

    Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller

    Current debates about the nature of international politics have centered on the clash between supporters and critics of realism. The Perils of Anarchy brings together a number of recent essays written in the realist tradition. It includes realist interpretations of the collapse of the Cold War order and of the emerging order that has replaced it, the sources of alignment and aggression, and the causes of peace. A final section provides a counterpoint by raising criticisms of and alternatives to the realist approach.

    Contributors Charles L. Glaser, Christopher Layne, Peter Liberman, Lisa L. Martin, John J. Mearsheimer, Paul Schroeder, Randall Schweller, Stephen M. Walt, Kenneth N. Waltz, William C. Wohlforth, Fareed Zakaria. An International Security Reader

    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • The Cold War and After, Expanded Edition

    The Cold War and After, Expanded Edition

    Prospects for Peace

    Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller

    A collection of well-reasoned arguments on the causes of the Cold War and the effect of its aftermath on the peaceful coexistence of European states.

    The Cold War and After presents a collection of well-reasoned arguments selected from the journal International Security on the causes of the Cold War and the effect of its aftermath on the peaceful coexistence of European states. This new edition includes all of the material from the first edition, plus four new articles: The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise, Christopher Layne; International Primacy: Is the Game Worth the Candle? Robert Jervis; Why International Primacy Matters, Samuel P. Huntington; and International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War, John Lewis Gaddis.

    • Paperback $36.00 £28.00
  • America's Strategy in a Changing World

    America's Strategy in a Changing World

    Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller

    Up-to-date and comprehensive analyses of American national security strategy in the post-Cold War world.

    At a time when events are overtaking many publications, these articles selected from International Security provide up-to-date and comprehensive analyses of American national security strategy in the post-Cold War world. Addressing future U.S. relations with its Cold War allies as well as with its former foes, contributions take up such major issues as overall strategic options, security in the new Europe, relations with the former Soviet Union, U.S.-Japan relations, and threats in the Third World, particularly proliferation. Essays in the first section examine the broad options that the United States has now that it no longer confronts a Soviet threat. They discuss such questions as what threats the United States now confronts, what values and interests it should pursue, whether it should play a diminished role in world politics, and what lessons can be drawn from the past. Essays in the second section look at important dimensions of U.S. strategy, including assuring security in Europe, relations with the former Soviet Union, and U.S. interests in the Third World. With its explicit focus on what course the United States should pursue in the post-Cold War world, America's Strategy in a Changing World serves as a companion volume to The Cold War and After, which drew on important theories in international relations to explain and predict the pattern of world politics.

    • Paperback $6.75 £5.95
  • Nuclear Diplomacy and Crisis Management

    Nuclear Diplomacy and Crisis Management

    Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Steven E. Miller, and Stephen Van Evera

    These essays from the journal International Security examine the effects of the nuclear revolution on the international system and the role nuclear threats have played in international crises. The authors offer important new interpretations of the role of nuclear weapons in preventing a third world war, of the uses of atomic superiority, and of the effectiveness of nuclear threats.

    Contributors John Mueller, Robert Jervis, Richard K. Betts, Marc Trachtenberg, Roger Digman, Scott D. Sagan, Gordon Chang, H. W. Brands, Jr., Barry Blechman and Douglas Hart

    • Hardcover $36.00
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy, Revised Edition

    An International Security Reader

    Steven E. Miller and Sean M. Lynn-Jones

    These fourteen essays analyze several major areas of American conventional defense: the new administration's defense policy the state of the NATO Warsaw Pact conventional balance, the effectiveness of NATO's conventional strategy and problems associated with projecting military power in the Third World. Over half of the chapters in this edition are new, and two others have been extensively revised and updated.

    Contributors Barry R. Posen, John Mearsheimer, Malcolm Chalmers, Lutz Unterseher, Eliot A. Cohen, John W. R. Lepingwell, Joshua Epstein, Richard K. Betts, Samuel P. Huntington, Robert D. Blackwill, and Jack Snyder

    • Hardcover $32.50
    • Paperback $14.95
  • Soviet Military Policy

    Soviet Military Policy

    An International Security Reader

    Sean M. Lynn-Jones, Steven E. Miller, and Stephen Van Evera

    Soviet military policy has been one of the most important and perplexing issues confronting the United States since 1945. Mikhail Gorbachev's foreign policy innovations have focused renewed attention on these vital questions. In this timely reader, ten experts on the Soviet Union offer their perspectives on Soviet military strategy and defense policy, covering the foreign policy context, nuclear weapons, conventional forces, and force and Soviet diplomacy.

    Contributors: Jack Snyder, Franklyn Griffiths, Stephen M. Meyer, Raymond L. Garthoff, Fritz W. Ermarth, Dimitri K. Simes, Donald MacKenzie, Matthew A Evangelista, and Richard Ned Lebow

    • Hardcover $32.50
    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00

Contributor

  • Double Jeopardy

    Double Jeopardy

    Combating Nuclear Terror and Climate Change

    Daniel B. Poneman

    Making the case that we can use nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror.

    Humanity faces two existential threats: nuclear annihilation and catastrophic climate change. Both have human origins, and both are linked to the use of nuclear energy. Inherent in the use of atomic fission is the risk that the technology and materials can be diverted to terrorists or hostile nations and used to make nuclear weapons. The key question is whether we can use nuclear energy to reduce the threat of climate change without increasing the risk that nuclear weapons will be used.

    In Double Jeopardy, Daniel Poneman argues that the world needs an “all-of-the-above” energy policy, one that advances the goal of decarbonizing the environment through all available means—including nuclear power. Poneman makes a compelling case that we can enhance the ability of nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror. Doing so will require well-crafted laws and policies, implemented with an ethos of constant vigilance and embedded in a culture that weaves safety and security goals into the fabric of our nuclear programs. This will enable government and industry to work together to maximize energy and climate benefits while minimizing safety and security risks.

    • Hardcover $27.95 £22.00
  • Fragile Rise

    Fragile Rise

    Grand Strategy and the Fate of Imperial Germany, 1871–1914

    Xu Qiyu

    Germany's rise to power before World War I from a Chinese persective, and the geopolitical lessons for today.

    A series of solemn anniversary events have marked the centenary of World War I. Could history repeat itself in today's geopolitics? Now, as then, a land power with a growing economy and a maritime power with global commitments are the two leading states in the international system. Most ominously, the outbreak of war in 1914 is a stark reminder that nations cannot rely on economic interdependence and ongoing diplomacy to keep the peace.

    In Fragile Rise, Xu Qiyu offers a Chinese perspective on the course of German grand strategy in the decades before World War I. Xu shows how Germany's diplomatic blunders turned its growing power into a liability instead of an asset. Bismarck's successors provoked tension and conflict with the other European great powers. Germany's attempts to build a powerful navy alienated Britain. Fearing an assertive Germany, France and Russia formed an alliance, leaving the declining Austro-Hungarian Empire as Germany's only major ally.

    Xu's account demonstrates that better strategy and statesmanship could have made a difference—for Germany and Europe. His analysis offers important lessons for the leaders of China and other countries. Fragile Rise reminds us that the emergence of a new great power creates risks that can be managed only by adroit diplomats, including the leaders of the emerging power. In the twenty-first century, another great war may not be inevitable. Heeding the lessons of Fragile Rise could make it even less likely.

    • Hardcover $32.00 £25.00
  • Indecision Points

    Indecision Points

    George W. Bush and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Daniel E. Zoughbie

    How a president who prided himself on his decisiveness vacillated between policy approaches in the Middle East.

    Although George W. Bush memorably declared, “I'm the decider,” as president he was remarkably indecisive when it came to U.S. policy toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. His administration's policymaking featured an ongoing clash between moderate realists and conservative hard-liners inspired by right-wing religious ideas and a vision of democracy as cure-all. Riven by these competing agendas, the Bush administration vacillated between recognizing the Palestinian right to self-determination and embracing Israeli leaders who often chose war over negotiations. Through the years, the administration erratically adopted and discarded successive approaches to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. The results of this irresolution included the stunning triumph of Hamas in the 2006 Palestinian elections, Israel's 2006 invasion of Lebanon, the 2008–2009 clash between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, and, in the end, virtually no diplomatic progress toward lasting peace.

    In Indecision Points, Daniel Zoughbie examines the major assumptions underpinning U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East during the Bush years. Was there one policy or two? Was the Bush administration truly serious about peace? In a compelling account, Zoughbie offers original insights into these and other important questions. Drawing on the auhtor's own interviews with forty-five global leaders, including Condoleezza Rice, former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, Kofi Annan, Colin Powell, Tom DeLay, Paul Wolfowitz, Douglas Feith, Richard Perle, Leon Panetta, Chuck Hagel, Shlomo Ben Ami, and Salam Fayyad, Indecision Points provides the first comprehensive history of the Bush administration's attempt to reshape political order in a “New Middle East.”

    • Hardcover $25.95 £20.00
  • Lee Kuan Yew

    Lee Kuan Yew

    The Grand Master's Insights on China, the United States, and the World

    Graham Allison, Robert D. Blackwill, and Ali Wyne

    Grand strategist and founder of modern Singapore offers key insights and controversial opinions on globalization, geopolitics, economic growth, and democracy.

    When Lee Kuan Yew speaks, presidents, prime ministers, diplomats, and CEOs listen. Lee, the founding father of modern Singapore and its prime minister from 1959 to 1990, has honed his wisdom during more than fifty years on the world stage. Almost single-handedly responsible for transforming Singapore into a Western-style economic success, he offers a unique perspective on the geopolitics of East and West. American presidents from Richard Nixon to Barack Obama have welcomed him to the White House; British prime ministers from Margaret Thatcher to Tony Blair have recognized his wisdom; and business leaders from Rupert Murdoch to Rex Tillerson, CEO of Exxon Mobil, have praised his accomplishments. This book gathers key insights from interviews, speeches, and Lee's voluminous published writings and presents them in an engaging question and answer format.

    Lee offers his assessment of China's future, asserting, among other things, that “China will want to share this century as co-equals with the U.S.” He affirms the United States' position as the world's sole superpower but expresses dismay at the vagaries of its political system. He offers strategic advice for dealing with China and goes on to discuss India's future, Islamic terrorism, economic growth, geopolitics and globalization, and democracy. Lee does not pull his punches, offering his unvarnished opinions on multiculturalism, the welfare state, education, and the free market. This little book belongs on the reading list of every world leader—including the one who takes the oath of office on January 20, 2013.

    • Hardcover $20.95 £16.99
  • Liberating Kosovo

    Liberating Kosovo

    Coercive Diplomacy and U. S. Intervention

    David L. Phillips

    A compelling account of the diplomatic and military actions that led to Kosovo's independence and their implications for future U.S. and UN interventions.

    Kosovo, after its incorporation into the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia, became increasingly restive during the 1990s as Yugoslavia plunged into internal war and Kosovo's ethnic Albanian residents (Kosovars) sought autonomy. In March 1999, NATO forces began airstrikes against targets in Kosovo and Serbia in an effort to protect Kosovars against persecution. The bombing campaign ended in June 1999, and Kosovo was placed under transitional UN administration while negotiations on its status ensued. Kosovo eventually declared independence in 2008. Despite internal political tension and economic problems, the new nation has been recognized by many other countries and most of its inhabitants welcome its separation from Serbia.

    In Liberating Kosovo, David Phillips offers a compelling account of the negotiations and military actions that culminated in Kosovo's independence. Drawing on his own participation in the diplomatic process and interviews with leading participants, Phillips chronicles Slobodan Milosevic's rise to power, the sufferings of the Kosovars, and the events that led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia. He analyzes how NATO, the United Nations, and the United States employed diplomacy, aerial bombing, and peacekeeping forces to set in motion the process that led to independence for Kosovo. He also offers important insights into a critical issue in contemporary international politics: how and when the United States, other nations, and NGOs should act to prevent ethnic cleansing and severe human-rights abuses.

    • Hardcover $6.75 £5.95
    • Paperback $22.00 £16.99
  • Our Own Worst Enemy?

    Our Own Worst Enemy?

    Institutional Interests and the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Expertise

    Sharon K. Weiner

    An examination of the effectiveness of knowledge nonproliferation programs implemented by the United States after the fall of the Soviet Union.

    When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, many observers feared that terrorists and rogue states would obtain weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or knowledge about how to build them from the vast Soviet nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons complex. The United States launched a major effort to prevent former Soviet WMD experts, suddenly without salaries, from peddling their secrets. In Our Own Worst Enemy, Sharon Weiner chronicles the design, implementation, and evolution of four U.S. programs that were central to this nonproliferation policy and assesses their successes and failures. Weiner examines the parlous state of the former Soviet nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons complex, the contentious domestic political debate within the United States, and most critically, the institutional interests and dynamics of the Defense, State, and Energy departments, which were charged with preventing the spread of WMD expertise. She explains why—despite unprecedented cooperation between the former Cold War adversaries—U.S. nonproliferation programs did not succeed at redirecting or converting to civilian uses significant parts of the former Soviet weapons complex. She shows how each of the U.S. government bureaucracies responsible for managing vital nonproliferation policies let its own organizational interests trump U.S. national security needs. Our Own Worst Enemy? raises important and troubling questions for anyone interested in understanding and improving policymaking and implementation processes in the area of nonproliferation and in U.S. national security policy more generally.

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $34.00 £27.00
  • Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists

    Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists

    Lessons from the War on Terrorism

    Gabriella Blum and Philip B. Heymann

    Guidance for maintaining national security without abandoning the rule of law and our democratic values.

    In an age of global terrorism, can the pursuit of security be reconciled with liberal democratic values and legal principles? During its “global war on terrorism,” the Bush administration argued that the United States was in a new kind of conflict, one in which peacetime domestic law was irrelevant and international law inapplicable. From 2001 to 2009, the United States thus waged war on terrorism in a “no-law zone.”

    In Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists, Gabriella Blum and Philip Heymann reject the argument that traditional American values embodied in domestic and international law can be ignored in any sustainable effort to keep the United States safe from terrorism. They demonstrate that the costs are great and the benefits slight from separating security and the rule of law. They call for reasoned judgment instead of a wholesale abandonment of American values. They also argue that being open to negotiations and seeking to win the moral support of the communities from which the terrorists emerge are noncoercive strategies that must be included in any future efforts to reduce terrorism.

    • Hardcover $23.00 £15.95
    • Paperback $17.95 £13.99
  • Rethinking Violence

    Rethinking Violence

    States and Non-State Actors in Conflict

    Erica Chenoweth and Adria Lawrence

    An original argument about the causes and consequences of political violence and the range of strategies employed.

    States, nationalist movements, and ethnic groups in conflict with one another often face a choice between violent and nonviolent strategies. Although major wars between sovereign states have become rare, contemporary world politics has been rife with internal conflict, ethnic cleansing, and violence against civilians. This book asks how, why, and when states and non-state actors use violence against one another, and examines the effectiveness of various forms of political violence.

    In the process of addressing these issues, the essays make two conceptual moves that illustrate the need to reconsider the way violence by states and non-state actors has typically been studied and understood. The first is to think of violence not as dichotomous, as either present or absent, but to consider the wide range of nonviolent and violent options available and ask why actors come to embrace particular strategies. The second is to explore the dynamic nature of violent conflicts, developing explanations that can account for the eruption of violence at particular moments in time. The arguments focus on how changes in the balance of power between and among states and non-state actors generate uncertainty and threat, thereby creating an environment conducive to violence. This innovative way of understanding violence deemphasizes the role of ethnic cleavages and nationalism in modern conflict.

    Contributors Kristin M. Bakke, Emily Beaulieu, H. Zeynep Bulutgil, Erica Chenoweth, Kathryn McNabb Cochran, Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, Alexander B. Downes, Erin K. Jenne, Adria Lawrence, Harris Mylonas, Wendy Pearlman, Maria J. Stephan

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.95
    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00
  • Reassessing Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific

    Reassessing Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific

    Competition, Congruence, and Transformation

    Amitav Acharya and Evelyn Goh

    Since the 1990s, Asia-Pacific countries have changed their approaches to security cooperation and regional order. The end of the Cold War, the resurgence of China, the Asian economic crisis, and the events of September 11, 2001, have all contributed to important changes in the Asia-Pacific security architecture. In addition to the traditional bilateral security arrangements based on the US "hub and spokes" alliance system, there has been an increase in multilateral efforts, including the ASEAN Regional Forum, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shangri-la dialogue of defense ministers, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. But because of their varying membership, scope, and mandates, these new arrangements have suffered from a lack of coordination. This volume reassesses security cooperation in the region in light of such recent developments as the emergence of new roles for existing institutions, the rise of new institutions, challenges to existing norms of regional interaction, increasing formalization or legalization of regional institutions, the reconstruction of modes of security cooperation that were once seen as mutually exclusive, and the creation of ad hoc and informal security approaches. The book examines how successful these new arrangements have been, whether there is competition among them, and why some modes of security cooperation have proven more feasible than others.

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • Service to Country

    Service to Country

    Personnel Policy and the Transformation of Western Militaries

    Curtis Gilroy and Cindy Williams

    Motivated, able, and well-trained military personnel are essential to the success of any military, and personnel policies are crucial to getting and keeping qualified servicemen and women. The transformation of personnel policies is an important element of the broader transformation occurring in Western militaries. Across Europe and North America, nations are embracing plans to change military personnel policies to build future capabilities consistent with new strategic environments and with the demographic and societal realities of the future. For many nations, a key reform is to shift from a conscript military to a smaller, all-volunteer force. Other important reforms include expanding recruitment capacity, improving working conditions, revamping career paths, overhauling compensation systems and increasing military pay, modernizing pension plans, improving the quality of life for military members and their families, and improving the post-service prospects for those who serve. Service to Country explores the ongoing transformation of military personnel policies in Europe and North America, looking at causes as well as potential costs and benefits of personnel policy transformation.

    Contributors to the volume, from both Europe and North America, include experts from militaries, governments, universities, and think tanks; practitioners and scholars; economists, political scientists, sociologists, and a demographer.

    Contributors Jennifer Buck, Deborah Clay-Mendez, Sylvain Daffix, Chris Donnelly, Curtis Gilroy, Keith Hartley, Hannu Herranen, Bertel Heurlin, Jolyon Howorth, Gerhard Kümmel, Juan Lopez Diaz, Karen McKenney, Mihaela Matei, Vincent Medina, Sebastian Negrusa, Cyr-Denis Nidier, Bernard Rostker, Robert St. Onge, Rickard Sandell, Peter Šveç, Vaidotas Urbelis, Domenico Villani, John Warner, Cindy Williams, John D. Winkler

    • Hardcover $55.00 £37.95
    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00
  • Dealing with Dictators

    Dealing with Dictators

    Dilemmas of US Diplomacy and Intelligence Analysis, 1945-1990

    Ernest R. May and Philip D. Zelikow

    The United States continues to proclaim its support for democracy and its opposition to tyranny, but American presidents often have supported dictators who have allied themselves with the United States. This book illustrates the chronic dilemmas inherent in US dealings with dictators under conditions of uncertainty and moral ambiguity. Dealing with Dictators offers in-depth analysis of six cases: the United States and China, 1945-1948; UN intervention in the Congo, 1960-1965; the overthrow of the Shah of Iran; US relations with the Somoza regime in Nicaragua; the fall of Marcos in the Philippines; and US policy toward Iraq, 1988-1990. The authors' fascinating and revealing accounts shed new light on critical episodes in US foreign policy and provide a basis for understanding the dilemmas that US decision makers confronted. The chapters do not focus on whether US leaders made the "right" or "wrong" decisions, but instead seek to deepen our understanding of how uncertainty permeated the process and whether decision makers and their aides asked the right questions. This approach makes the book invaluable to scholars and students of government and history, and to readers interested in the general subject of how intelligence analysis interacts with policymaking.

    • Hardcover $12.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • The Limits of Culture

    The Limits of Culture

    Islam and Foreign Policy

    Brenda Shaffer

    In recent years, analysts of world affairs have suggested that cultural interests—ethnicity, religion, and ideology—play a primary role in patterns of conflict and alliances, and that in the future the "clash of civilizations" will dominate international relations. The Limits of Culture explores the effect of culture on foreign policy, focusing on countries in the geopolitically important Caspian region and paying particular attention to those states that have identified themselves as Islamic republics—Iran, Taliban Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

    The contributors to The Limits of Culture find that, contrary to the currently popular view, culture is rarely more important than other factors in shaping the foreign policies of countries in the Caspian region. They find that ruling regimes do not necessarily act according to their own rhetoric. Iran, for example, can conduct policies that contradict the official state ideology without suffering domestic retribution. Also, countries frequently align with one another when they do not share religious beliefs or cultural heritage. For example, Christian Armenia cooperates on trade and security with non-Christian Iran. Cultural identities, the contributors find, are flexible enough to enable states to pursue a wide range of policies that are consistent with their material interests. As the essays in The Limits of Culture make clear, the emerging foreign policies of the Caspian states present a significant challenge to the culturalist argument.

    • Hardcover $50.00 £34.95
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • Electing to Fight

    Electing to Fight

    Why Emerging Democracies Go to War

    Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder

    Does the spread of democracy really contribute to international peace? Successive U. S. administrations have justified various policies intended to promote democracy not only by arguing that democracy is intrinsically good but by pointing to a wide range of research concluding that democracies rarely, if ever, go to war with one another. To promote democracy, the United States has provided economic assistance, political support, and technical advice to emerging democracies in Eastern and Central Europe, and it has attempted to remove undemocratic regimes through political pressure, economic sanctions, and military force. In Electing to Fight, Edward Mansfield and Jack Snyder challenge the widely accepted basis of these policies by arguing that states in the early phases of transitions to democracy are more likely than other states to become involved in war.

    Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Mansfield and Snyder show that emerging democracies with weak political institutions are especially likely to go to war. Leaders of these countries attempt to rally support by invoking external threats and resorting to belligerent, nationalist rhetoric. Mansfield and Snyder point to this pattern in cases ranging from revolutionary France to contemporary Russia. Because the risk of a state's being involved in violent conflict is high until democracy is fully consolidated, Mansfield and Snyder argue, the best way to promote democracy is to begin by building the institutions that democracy requires—such as the rule of law—and only then encouraging mass political participation and elections. Readers will find this argument particularly relevant to prevailing concerns about the transitional government in Iraq. Electing to Fight also calls into question the wisdom of urging early elections elsewhere in the Islamic world and in China.

    • Hardcover $32.95 £22.95
    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00
  • Protecting Liberty in an Age of Terror

    Protecting Liberty in an Age of Terror

    Philip B. Heymann and Juliette N. Kayyem

    Since September 11, 2001, much has been said about the difficult balancing act between freedom and security, but few have made specific proposals for how to strike that balance. As the scandals over the abuse of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib and the "torture memos" written by legal officials in the Bush administration show, without clear rules in place, things can very easily go very wrong.With this challenge in mind, Philip Heymann and Juliette Kayyem, directors of Harvard's Long-Term Legal Strategy Project for Preserving Security and Democratic Freedoms in the War on Terrorism, take a detailed look at how to handle these competing concerns. Taking into account both the national security viewpoint and the democratic freedoms viewpoint, Heymann and Kayyem consulted experts from across the political spectrum—including Rand Beers, Robert McNamara, and Michael Chertoff (since named Secretary of Homeland Security)—about the thorniest and most profound legal challenges of this new era. Heymann and Kayyem offer specific recommendations for dealing with such questions as whether assassination is ever acceptable, when coercion can be used in interrogation, and when detention is allowable. They emphasize that drawing clear rules to guide government conduct protects the innocent from unreasonable government intrusion and prevents government agents from being made scapegoats later if things go wrong. Their recommendations will be of great interest to legal scholars, legislators, policy professionals, and concerned citizens.

    • Hardcover $40.00 £29.95
    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00
  • Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences

    Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences

    Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett

    The use of case studies to build and test theories in political science and the other social sciences has increased in recent years. Many scholars have argued that the social sciences rely too heavily on quantitative research and formal models and have attempted to develop and refine rigorous methods for using case studies. This text presents a comprehensive analysis of research methods using case studies and examines the place of case studies in social science methodology. It argues that case studies, statistical methods, and formal models are complementary rather than competitive.

    The book explains how to design case study research that will produce results useful to policymakers and emphasizes the importance of developing policy-relevant theories. It offers three major contributions to case study methodology: an emphasis on the importance of within-case analysis, a detailed discussion of process tracing, and development of the concept of typological theories. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences will be particularly useful to graduate students and scholars in social science methodology and the philosophy of science, as well as to those designing new research projects, and will contribute greatly to the broader debate about scientific methods.

    • Hardcover $53.00 £39.95
    • Paperback $32.00 £25.00
  • Bare Branches

    Bare Branches

    The Security Implications of Asia's Surplus Male Population

    Valerie M. Hudson and Andrea M. den Boer

    What happens to a society that has too many men? In this provocative book, Valerie Hudson and Andrea den Boer argue that, historically, high male-to-female ratios often trigger domestic and international violence. Most violent crime is committed by young unmarried males who lack stable social bonds. Although there is not always a direct cause-and-effect relationship, these surplus men often play a crucial role in making violence prevalent within society. Governments sometimes respond to this problem by enlisting young surplus males in military campaigns and high-risk public works projects. Countries with high male-to-female ratios also tend to develop authoritarian political systems.

    Hudson and den Boer suggest that the sex ratios of many Asian countries, particularly China and India—which represent almost 40 percent of the world's population—are being skewed in favor of males on a scale that may be unprecedented in human history. Through offspring sex selection (often in the form of sex-selective abortion and female infanticide), these countries are acquiring a disproportionate number of low-status young adult males, called "bare branches" by the Chinese.

    Hudson and den Boer argue that this surplus male population in Asia's largest countries threatens domestic stability and international security. The prospects for peace and democracy are dimmed by the growth of bare branches in China and India, and, they maintain, the sex ratios of these countries will have global implications in the twenty-first century.

    • Hardcover $9.75 £6.95
    • Paperback $34.00 £27.00
  • Filling the Ranks

    Filling the Ranks

    Transforming the US Military System

    Cindy Williams

    The war in Iraq and the problematic military occupation of that country have called into question the adequacy of America's all-volunteer force. Politicians and others have expressed doubts about its equity and capability; some have called for the reinstatement of the draft. Yet over the past twenty years the all-volunteer military has become a technologically advanced force that has contributed to America's overall military advantage. This book analyzes current military pay and personnel policies and identifies changes needed to maintain and improve America's all-volunteer force.

    Filling the Ranks argues that to attract qualified and motivated volunteers, the armed forces need to offer better tangible inducements—pay, benefits, and training—to accompany such intangible rewards as pride in serving one's country. Many of the policies related to tangible rewards were established shortly after World War II and are no longer effective. Filling the Ranks presents detailed assessments of US military pay and personnel policies in light of the strategic, demographic, economic, and labor realities of the future. It identifies specific problems that today's military career patterns, training, pay, and benefits pose for officers and enlisted men and women in both active duty and reserve forces, discussing such issues as competition with the private sector for talent, the need to restructure compensation, and provision of family support. It offers recommendations for more flexible, adaptive, and effective policies and a blueprint for achieving them.

    • Hardcover $50.00 £34.95
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.99
  • The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy

    The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Lenore G. Martin and Dimitris Keridis

    Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey has moved from the periphery to occupy the very center of Eurasian security. It is a critical participant in NATO and aspires to become a member of the European Union. The pivotal role that Turkey plays in Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and the Caucasus has profound implications for the international arena and spawns vital debates over the directions of Turkish foreign policy. The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy explores these debates and the interactions between Turkey's domestic and foreign policies at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Contributors to the book include some of the foremost scholars and exponents of Turkish foreign policy. Their analyses reveal the complexity of the challenges that confront Turkey's foreign policy and suggest creative and resourceful strategies for resolving its policy dilemmas.

    • Hardcover $50.00 £34.95
    • Paperback $32.00 £25.00
  • Track-II Diplomacy

    Track-II Diplomacy

    Lessons from the Middle East

    Hussein Agha, Shai Feldman, Ahmad Khalidi, and Zeev Schiff

    Track-II talks in the Middle East—unofficial discussions among Israeli and Arab scholars, journalists, and former government and military officials—have been going on since soon after the 1967 Six Day War and have often paved the way for official negotiations. This book, a unique collaboration of Israeli and Palestinian authors, traces the history of these unofficial meetings, focusing on those that took place in the 1990s beginning just after the Gulf War. These talks were carried on without media coverage, and this book is the first sustained account of what took place. It is the inside story—the authors themselves participated in some of these discussions and interviewed participants in others.After describing the background of early Arab-Israeli discussions, the authors present six case studies of Track-II talks in the 1990s: the 1992-1993 discussions in Norway that led to the Oslo accords; Palestinian-Israeli talks held in the early 1990s under the auspices of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Israeli-Syrian meetings of 1992-1994; the 1994-1995 Stockholm talks convened by the Swedish government; talks held in 1995-1996 between Israeli settlers and representatives of the Palestinian Authority; and arms control and regional security discussions throughout the decade. Despite their different perspectives, the book's two Israeli and two Palestinian authors are able to reach shared conclusions about the effectiveness and consequences of Track-II talks. Track-II Diplomacy not only makes a valuable contribution to the historical record of Arab-Israeli diplomacy but also offers insights into the role of informal and non-official discussions in resolving conflicts.

    • Hardcover $9.75 £7.99
    • Paperback $5.75 £4.99
  • Countering Terrorism

    Countering Terrorism

    Dimensions of Preparedness

    Arnold M. Howitt and Robyn L. Pangi

    The United States now knows that it is vulnerable to terrorist attacks. In Countering Terrorism, experts from such disparate fields as medicine, law, public policy, and international security discuss institutional changes the country must make to protect against future attacks. In these essays, they argue that terrorism preparedness is not just a federal concern, but one that requires integrated efforts across federal, state, and local governments.

    The authors focus on new threats—biological attacks, "dirty bombs" containing radioactive materials, and "cyberattacks" that would disrupt the computer networks we rely on for communication, banking, and commerce—and argue that US institutions must make fundamental changes to protect against them. They discuss not only the needed reorganization of government agencies but such institutional issues as establishing legal jurisdiction to respond to new threats, preparing health workers for attacks involving mass casualties, and equipping police, fire, and other emergency workers with interoperable communications systems. The final essays examine how Israel, Japan, and the United Kingdom have dealt with domestic terrorism, and what the United States can learn from their examples.

    • Hardcover $12.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $29.00 £23.00
  • Fighting Words

    Fighting Words

    Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia

    Michael E. Brown and Šumit Ganguly

    Language policy is a sensitive issue in most countries. In countries where more than one language is spoken—the vast majority—language policies affect the ability of individuals and groups to participate in government, to be treated fairly by governmental agencies, to have access to government services, to take advantage of educational opportunities, and to pursue economic success.

    Language policies also affect the prospects for survival of ethnic groups that define themselves on the basis of language. Assimilationist policies can threaten the existence of minority groups as distinct entities. Accommodationist policies might allow many ethnic groups to flourish but weaken national unity. In many countries, disputes over language policies have led to ethnic tensions and, in some cases, to violent ethnic conflicts.

    This book analyzes the impact of different kinds of language policies on ethnic relations in fifteen multiethnic countries in Asia and the Pacific. The analyses include discussion of the origins of different language policies and of how the policies have evolved over time. The book develops policy recommendations, both for individual countries and in more general terms.

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.99
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.95
  • First to Arrive

    First to Arrive

    State and Local Responses to Terrorism

    Juliette N. Kayyem and Robyn L. Pangi

    Since September 11, 2001, the United States has been preoccupied by the federal role in preparedness against terror attacks, and by ways to provide a quick fix through organizational overhauls. Airport security has been federalized, and Congress has approved a Cabinet-level homeland security agency. By contrast, national discussion of state and local preparedness has been largely absent.

    First to Arrive argues that the best way for America to prepare for terrorism is to listen to people in the field; those working on the ground can guide decisions at the top. Many of the contributors are first responders who have long been dedicated to domestic preparedness; others are political scientists and historians who provide a broader context. They analyze critical but often overlooked issues, explain the operational needs of state and local governments, and provide practical solutions to the challenges of local and state domestic preparedness.

    These essays grew out of a series of discussions held by the Executive Session on Domestic Preparedness at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. Begun before the September 11 attacks and continuing after them, they offer a guide to US domestic security in today's world.

    • Hardcover $46.00
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.95
  • Progress in International Relations Theory

    Progress in International Relations Theory

    Appraising the Field

    Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman

    All academic disciplines periodically appraise their effectiveness, evaluating the progress of previous scholarship and judging which approaches are useful and which are not. Although no field could survive if it did nothing but appraise its progress, occasional appraisals are important and if done well can help advance the field. This book investigates how international relations theorists can better equip themselves to determine the state of scholarly work in their field. It takes as its starting point Imre Lakatos's influential theory of scientific change, and in particular his methodology of scientific research programs (MSRP). It uses MSRP to organize its analysis of major research programs over the last several decades and uses MSRP's criteria for theoretical progress to evaluate these programs. The contributors appraise the progress of institutional theory, varieties of realist and liberal theory, operational code analysis, and other research programs in international relations. Their analyses reveal the strengths and limits of Lakatosian criteria and the need for metatheoretical metrics for evaluating scientific progress.

    • Hardcover $11.75 £9.95
    • Paperback $38.00 £30.00
  • Terrorism, Freedom, and Security

    Terrorism, Freedom, and Security

    Winning Without War

    Philip B. Heymann

    A former Deputy Attorney General of the United States argues that we must preserve our civil liberties and democratic values while fighting terrorism.

    On September 11, 2001, the United States began to consider the terrorist threat in a new light. Terrorism was no longer something that happened in other countries on other continents but became a pressing domestic concern for the US government and American citizens. The nation suddenly faced a protracted struggle.

    In Terrorism, Freedom, and Security, Philip Heymann continues the discussion of responses to terrorism that he began in his widely read Terrorism and America. He argues that diplomacy, intelligence, and international law should play a larger role than military action in our counterterrorism policy; instead of waging "war" against terrorism, the United States needs a broader range of policies. Heymann believes that many of the policies adopted since September 11—including trials before military tribunals, secret detentions, and the subcontracting of interrogation to countries where torture is routine—are at odds with American political and legal traditions and create disturbing precedents. Americans should not be expected to accept apparently indefinite infringements on civil liberties and the abandonment of such constitutional principles as separation of powers and the rule of law. Heymann believes that the United States can guard against the continuing threat of terrorism while keeping its traditional democratic values in place.

    • Hardcover $6.75 £5.99
    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • Comrades No More

    Comrades No More

    The Seeds of Change in Eastern Europe

    Renée de Nevers

    In 1989, Soviet control over Eastern Europe ended when the communist regimes of the Warsaw Pact collapsed. These momentous and largely bloodless events set the stage for the end of the Cold War and ushered in a new era in international politics. Why did communism collapse relatively peacefully in Eastern Europe? Why did these changes occur in 1989, after more than four decades of communist rule? Why did this upheaval happen almost simultaneously in most of the Warsaw Pact? In Comrades No More, Renee de Nevers examines how internal and external factors interacted in the collapse of East European communism. She argues that Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union were necessary to start the process of political change in Eastern Europe, but domestic factors in each communist state determined when and how each country abandoned communism. A "demonstration effect" emerged as Hungary and Poland introduced reforms and showed that Moscow would not intervene to prevent political and economic changes.De Nevers analyzes the process of change in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. She traces the pattern of reform in each country and shows how these patterns influenced their postcommunist political evolution.

    • Hardcover $70.00 £48.95
    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00
  • The Middle East Military Balance, 2001–2002

    The Middle East Military Balance, 2001–2002

    Shlomo Brom and Yiftah Shapir

    Up-to-date, authoritative information on military capabilities in the Middle East.

    The explosion of violence between Israelis and Palestinians that began in late 2000 is a tragic reminder of the potential for armed conflict in the Middle East. Although many developments in the 1990s appeared to have reduced the likelihood of war in the region, stability between Israel and its Arab neighbors remains tenuous. Security in the Persian Gulf also remains uncertain, as Iran and Iraq have continued their pursuit of weapons of mass destruction. Understanding the dynamics of security in the Middle East requires detailed information on the military capabilities of the region's countries.The Middle East Military Balance is prepared annually by the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies in Tel Aviv. It is based on data from many sources, including some that are unavailable to other institutes. With its wealth of current, hard-to-find information, it offers an authoritative and indispensable guide to military capabilities in the Middle East. Governments, the media, and researchers pay close attention to its data and analysis each year.

    • Hardcover $9.75 £8.95
  • Borders and Brethren

    Borders and Brethren

    Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity

    Brenda Shaffer

    The Azerbaijani people have been divided between Iran and the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan for more than 150 years, yet they have retained their ethnic identity. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of an independent Azerbaijan have only served to reinforce their collective identity. In Borders and Brethren, Brenda Shaffer examines trends in Azerbaijani collective identity from the period of the Islamic Revolution in Iran through the Soviet breakup and the beginnings of the Republic of Azerbaijan (1979-2000). Challenging the mainstream view in contemporary Iranian studies, Shaffer argues that a distinctive Azerbaijani identity exists in Iran and that Azerbaijani ethnicity must be a part of studies of Iranian society and assessments of regime stability in Iran. She analyzes how Azerbaijanis have maintained their identity and how that identity has assumed different forms in the former Soviet Union and Iran. In addition to contributing to the study of ethnic identity, the book reveals the dilemmas of ethnic politics in Iran.

    • Hardcover $62.50 £43.95
    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00
  • Soldiers and Civilians

    Soldiers and Civilians

    The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security

    Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn

    Soldiers and Civilians analyzes the emerging civil-military "gap" in the United States, drawing on a major survey of military officers, civilian leaders, and the general public. The book's contributors, leading scholars of defense policy, find that numerous schisms have undermined civil-military cooperation and harmed military effectiveness.

    • Hardcover $55.00
    • Paperback $38.00 £30.00
  • Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East

    Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East

    BCSIA

    The political dimensions of the Arab-Israeli relationship have changed dramatically in recent years. Israel and its Arab neighbors have made remarkable progress toward resolving long-standing conflicts. In Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the Middle East, Shai Feldman considers whether these political breakthroughs have set the stage for agreements on controlling nuclear weapons in the region. He presents a richly detailed overview of the current situation and lays out an agenda for future efforts to reduce the risk of nuclear war in the Middle East. Feldman, whose background in strategic studies includes nearly two decades of research at Tel Aviv University's Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, provides a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear programs of Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, and Syria. He presents a detailed picture of how Israel and the Arab states view nuclear weapons—their utility, and the threats they pose to regional security—and explores the different approaches that Israel and the Arab states have adopted toward nuclear arms control. Feldman concludes by suggesting interim measures that might help bridge the gap between these different perspectives. BCSIA Studies in International Security

    • Hardcover $55.00
    • Paperback $7.75 £5.95
  • The Middle East Military Balance 2000–2001

    The Middle East Military Balance 2000–2001

    Shai Feldman and Yiftah Shapir

    With its wealth of current, hard-to-find information, The Middle East Military Balance offers an authoritative and indispensable guide to military capabilities in the Middle East.

    Although Israel and its Arab neighbors have taken many steps toward peace in recent years, the Middle East remains an uncertain and volatile region. Stretching from Morocco to Iran, the area has seen numerous international and internal conflicts in recent decades. Understanding the dynamics of these conflicts requires detailed information on the military capabilities of the region's countries. The Middle East Military Balance is prepared annually by the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies in Tel Aviv, Israel. It is based on data from many sources, including some that are unavailable to other institutes. With its wealth of current, hard-to-find information, it offers an authoritative and indispensable guide to military capabilities in the Middle East. Governments, the media, and researchers pay close attention to its data and analysis each year.

    "The Jaffee Center's new, reorganized Middle East Military Balance provides the most comprehensive and objective analysis of Middle East military developments available in the open literature. A first-rate product."—Geoffrey Kemp, Director of Regional Strategic Programs, The Nixon Center

    • Hardcover $50.00 £40.00
  • Bridges and Boundaries

    Bridges and Boundaries

    Historians, Political Scientists, and the Study of International Relations

    Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman

    Bridges and Boundaries offers a conversation between what might loosely be described as traditionalist diplomatic and military historians, and political scientists who employ qualitative case study methods to examine international relations. The book opens with a series of chapters discussing differences, commonalities, and opportunities for cross-fertilization between the two disciplines.To help focus the dialogue on real events and research, the volume then revisits three empirical topics that have been studied at length by members of both disciplines: British hegemony in the nineteenth century; diplomacy in the interwar period and the causes of World War II; and the origins and course of the Cold War. For each of these subjects, a political scientist, a historian, and a commentator reflect on how disciplinary "guild rules" have shaped the study of international events. The book closes with incisive overviews by Robert Jervis and Paul W. Schroeder.

    Bridges and Boundaries explores how historians and political scientists can learn from one another and illustrates the possibilities that arise when open-minded scholars from different disciplines sit down to talk.

    • Hardcover $75.00 £55.95
    • Paperback $40.00 £30.00
  • Keeping the Edge

    Keeping the Edge

    Managing Defense for the Future

    Ashton B. Carter and John P. White

    Most national security debates concern the outcomes of policies, neglecting the means by which those policies are implemented. This book argues that although the US military is the finest fighting force in the world, the system that supports it is in disrepair. Operating with Cold War-era structures and practices, it is subject to managerial and organizational problems that increasingly threaten our military's effectiveness.Keeping the Edge goes beyond questions of Pentagon reorganization and weapons procurement to explore how the US defense establishment can improve its readiness, logistics, and ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. It also looks at how the US military can exploit information technology more effectively, improve its intelligence, and counter asymmetric threats. More comprehensive than the usual exhortation to cut waste, fraud, and abuse at the Pentagon, the book in fact recommends changes in many government agencies, not just the Department of Defense. It shows how the US can improve its ability to implement its policies and to anticipate and adapt to a changing and uncertain world.

    • Hardcover $75.00
    • Paperback $7.75 £5.95
  • Holding the Line

    Holding the Line

    US Defense Alternatives for the 21st Century

    Cindy Williams

    Since the end of the Cold War, the US military has reduced its combat forces by 40 percent, closed about 20 percent of its bases, and withdrawn from many overseas posts. Even after these changes, the US military is by far the strongest in the world, with huge advantages in training, equipment, and technology. Despite cutting its annual spending by about 30 percent, the United States spends more than the countries with the six next-largest military budgets combined. Heated debates continue to rage over US military spending. In the late 1990s, many commentators claimed that spending was too low, and the defense budget began to increase for the first time since the mid-1980s. Others argued that the United States had taken on too many military missions—including frequent humanitarian interventions or peacekeeping operations—and needed to scale back these deployments. Holding the Line presents objective and detailed assessments of the US defense budget and America's military strategy. Its contributors conclude that the United States must reshape its military to face the real challenges of the coming decades. They call for smaller US forces with more modern weapons, sensors, avionics, and communications systems. They offer recommendations that would enable the US military to transform its forces and make them more effective, while holding the line on defense budget increases.

    • Hardcover $62.50 £43.95
    • Paperback $6.75 £5.95
  • America's Asian Alliances

    America's Asian Alliances

    Robert D. Blackwill and Paul Dibb

    Systematic and concrete prescriptions for strengthening America's alliances in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Unlike the new and largely peaceful Europe, the Asia-Pacific region is fraught with old instabilities and new risks, as well as opportunities. America's Asian alliances face an arc of potential instability, from the divided Korean peninsula in Northeast Asia, to the nuclear confrontation between India and Pakistan on the South Asian subcontinent, to an unstable Indonesia in Southeast Asia. The United States and its allies must also address the rise of Chinese power, slow the spread of nuclear and high-tech conventional weapons, maintain access to energy resources, and expand the world free-trade system. In this book, nine distinguished US and Australian strategists present systematic and concrete prescriptions for strengthening America's Asian alliances. These policy-driven chapters address the roles that the US-Japan, US-South Korea, and US-Australia alliances can play in ensuring long-term stability and prosperity in the region.

    • Hardcover $50.00 £34.95
    • Paperback $5.75 £4.99
  • The Coming Crisis

    The Coming Crisis

    Nuclear Proliferation, US Interests, and World Order

    Victor A. Utgoff

    How will continued proliferation of nuclear weapons change the global political order? This collection of essays comes to conclusions at odds with the conventional wisdom. Stephen Rosen and Barry Posen explore how nuclear proliferation may affect US incentives to confront regional aggression. Stephen Walt argues that regional allies will likely prove willing to stand with a strong and ready United States against nuclear-backed aggression. George Quester and Brad Roberts examine long-term strategic objectives in responding to nuclear attack by a regional aggressor. Richard Betts highlights the potential for disastrous mistakes in moving toward and living in a world heavily populated with nuclear-armed states. Scott Sagan explains how the nuclear nonproliferation policies best suited to some states can spur proliferation by others. Caroline Ziemke shows how the analysis of a state's strategic personality can provide insights into why it might want nuclear weapons and how its policies may develop once it gets them. And, Victor Utgoff concludes that the United States seems more likely to intervene against regional aggression when the aggressor has nuclear weapons than when it does not.

    • Hardcover $112.50
    • Paperback $10.75 £8.99
  • Toxic Terror

    Toxic Terror

    Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Jonathan B. Tucker

    In-depth case studies of twelve terrorist groups and individuals who, from 1946 to 1998, allegedly acquired or employed CBW agents.

    Policymakers, scholars, and the news media have been alarmed by the potential for chemical and biological weapons (CBW) terrorism, and the U.S. Congress has allocated billions of dollars for counterterrorism and "consequence management" programs. Driving these concerns are the global spread of scientific knowledge and technology relevant to CBW terrorism and the vulnerability of civilian populations to chemical and biological attacks.

    Notably lacking from the analysis, however, has been a careful assessment of the terrorists themselves. What types of terrorist groups or individuals are both capable of acquiring chemical and biological weapons and motivated to use them, and for what purposes? Further, what types of toxic agents would probably be produced, and how would they be delivered?

    Answers to these questions would enable policymakers to prepare for the most likely contingencies. To this end, Toxic Terror provides in-depth case studies of twelve terrorist groups and individuals who, from 1946 to 1998, allegedly acquired or employed CBW agents. The cases were researched from primary sources, including court documents, interviews, and declassified government files.

    By comparing the twelve cases, the book identifies characteristic motivations and patterns of behavior associated with CBW terrorism and provides an empirical basis for prudent, cost-effective strategies of prevention and response.

    • Hardcover $45.00 £34.95
    • Paperback $32.00 £25.00
  • The Middle East Military Balance 1999–2000

    The Middle East Military Balance 1999–2000

    Shlomo Brom and Yiftah Shapir

    The Middle East remains one of the world's most volatile regions. Stretching from Morocco to Iran, the area has seen numerous international and internal conflicts over the past decades. Understanding the dynamics of these conflicts requires detailed information on the military capabilities of the region's countries.

    The Middle East Military Balance is prepared annually by the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies in Tel Aviv, Israel. It is based on data from many sources, including some that are unavailable to other institutes. With its wealth of current, hard-to-find information, it offers an authoritative and indispensable guide to military capabilities in the Middle East.

    • Hardcover $60.00
    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00
  • Condemned to Repetition?

    Condemned to Repetition?

    The Rise, Fall, and Reprise of Soviet-Russian Military Interventionism, 1973-1996

    Andrew Bennett

    Why did the Soviet Union use less force to preserve the Soviet empire from 1989 to 1991 than it had used in distant and impoverished Angola in 1975? This book fills a key gap in international relations theories by examining how actors' preferences and causal conceptions change as they learn from their experiences. Andrew Bennett draws on interviews and declassified Politburo documents as well as numerous public statements to establish the views of Soviet and Russian officials. He argues that Soviet leaders drew lessons from their apparent successes in Vietnam and elsewhere in the 1970s that made them more interventionist. Then, as casualties in Afghanistan mounted in the 1980s, Soviet leaders learned different lessons that led them to withdraw from regional conflicts and even to abstain from the use of force as the Soviet empire dissolved. The loss of this empire led to exaggerated fears of "domino effects" within Russia and a resurgence of interventionist views, culminating in the Russian invasion of Chechnya in 1994. Throughout this process, Soviet and Russian leaders and policy experts were divided into competing schools of thought as much by the information to which they were exposed as by their apparent material interests. This helps explain how Gorbachev and other new thinkers were able to prevail over the powerful military-party-industrial complex that had dominated Soviet politics since Stalin's time.

    • Hardcover $75.00 £51.95
    • Paperback $37.00 £29.00
  • Biological Weapons

    Biological Weapons

    Limiting the Threat

    Joshua Lederberg

    foreword by William S. Cohen, U.S. Secretary of Defense Biological weapons pose a horrifying and growing threat to the United States and to the world in general. Revelations about Iraq's weapons research and the plans of the Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan serve as frightening reminders of the potential for military or terrorist use of biological agents. The essays in this book, many of which were originally published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, examine the medical, scientific, and political dimensions of limiting the threat posed by biological weapons. The contributors consider the current threat posed by biological weapons, the history of attempts to control them, episodes in which biological agents have been used, Iraq's biological warfare program, and policies that the United States might pursue to reduce the threat.

    Contributors Suzanne Barth, Pamela Berkowsky, Kristin A. Birkness, Stephen Black, W. Russell Byrne, W. Seth Carus, Marie Chevrier, George W. Christopher, Theodore J. Cieslak, Richard Danzig, Edward M. Eitzen, Jr., Charles C. Engel, James R. Ferguson, Laurence R. Foster, David R. Franz, Arthur M. Friedlander, Carol S. Fullerton, Jeanne Guillemin, Charles E. Haley, Harry C. Holloway, David L. Hoover, John M. Horan, Martin Hugh-Jones, Peter B. Jahrling, Robert P. Kadlec, Akiko Kimura, Shellie A. Kolavic, Alexander Langmuir, John R. Livengood, Karl Lowe, Steven Mauvais, David J. McClain, Matthew Meselson, Ann E. Norwood, Julie A. Pavlin, Graham S. Pearson, Ilona Popova, Alexis Shelokov, Jeffrey D. Simon, Shauna L. Simons, Michael R. Skeels, Laurence Slutsker, Robert Sokolow, Robert V. Tauxe, Thomas J. Török, Jonathan B. Tucker, Robert J. Ursano, Victor Utgoff, Ann M. Vrtis, Robert P. Wise, Olga Yampolskaya, Allan P. Zellicoff, Raymond A. Zilinskas

    • Hardcover $50.00
    • Paperback $7.75 £6.99
  • The Consequences of Nuclear Proliferation

    The Consequences of Nuclear Proliferation

    Lessons from South Asia

    Devin T. Hagerty

    Analysts of international politics have debated heatedly over the likely consequences of the spread of nuclear weapons. Most argue that nuclear proliferation will destabilize the world and increase the risk of nuclear war. Others counter that the threat of nuclear war is enough to convince new nuclear nations to adopt prudent security policies.

    In this book, Devin Hagerty examines the relationship between two emerging nuclear powers—India and Pakistan—to assess how nuclear weapons have changed their foreign and military policies. Even before India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998, both countries believed that the other was capable of assembling a bomb. In recent years, their respective governments had conducted diplomacy in the shadow of those nuclear suspicions. India and Pakistan have fought three wars since becoming independent in 1947 and their relations remain tense, especially over the disputed border region of Kashmir.

    Hagerty presents detailed studies of the January 1987 Indo-Pakistani crisis, precipitated by India's "Brasstacks" military exercises, and the 1990 confrontation over Kashmir. He finds that the two countries nearly went to war in the "Brasstacks" crisis, at least partly because Pakistan's nuclear capability remained nascent. In the 1990 crisis, however, both countries were aware of the possibility of nuclear escalation and acted more cautiously. Hagerty finds little evidence of preparations for preemptive nuclear strikes in the 1990 crisis. Instead, India and Pakistan appear to have embraced the logic of nuclear deterrence. Hagerty concludes that relations between India and Pakistan in recent years support the argument that nuclear proliferation does not necessarily destabilize international relations and may even reduce the risk of war. This conclusion is grounds for optimism about peace in South Asia now that India and Pakistan are overt nuclear-weapons states.

    • Paperback $5.75 £4.99
  • Terrorism and America

    Terrorism and America

    A Commonsense Strategy for a Democratic Society

    Philip B. Heymann

    An evenhanded look at how democracies can fight terrorism while maintaining a healthy society.

    The bombings of the World Trade Center and the Oklahoma City federal building have shown that terrorist attacks can happen anywhere in the United States. Around the globe, massacres, hijackings, and bombings of airliners are frequent reminders of the threat of terrorism. The use of poison gas in the Tokyo subway has raised the specter of even more horrible forms of terror—including the use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. In this book, Philip Heymann argues that the United States and other democracies can fight terrorism while preserving liberty and maintaining a healthy, unified society. Drawing on his experience in the US Departments of State and Justice, he shows how domestic and foreign intelligence-gathering can thwart terrorism, how the United States must cooperate and share information with its allies, and how terrorism can be prevented in many cases. Terrorism will never disappear completely, but the policies Heymann offers can limit the harm to Americans and protect the integrity of US governmental processes.

    • Hardcover $40.00
    • Paperback $17.00 £13.99
  • America's Achilles' Heel

    America's Achilles' Heel

    Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack

    Richard A Falkenrath, Robert D Newman, and Bradley A. Thayer

    This volume analyzes the nature andlimits of the covert NBC threat and proposes a measured set of policyresponses, focused on improving intelligence andconsequence-management capabilities to reduce U.S. vulnerability.

    Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons delivered covertly by terrorists or hostile governments pose a significant and growing threat to the United States and other countries. Although the threat of NBC attack is widely recognized as a central national security issue, most analysts have assumed that the primary danger is military use by states in war, with traditional military means of delivery. The threat of covert attack has been imprudently neglected.

    Covert attack is hard to deter or prevent, and NBC weapons suitable for covert attack are available to a growing range of states and groups hostile to the United States. At the same time, constraints on their use appear to be eroding. This volume analyzes the nature and limits of the covert NBC threat and proposes a measured set of policy responses, focused on improving intelligence and consequence-management capabilities to reduce U.S. vulnerability.

    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • Soviet Strategic Thought, 1917–91

    Soviet Strategic Thought, 1917–91

    Andrei A. Kokoshin

    During the Cold War, Westerners were obsessed with the military policies of the Soviet Union. Until the demise of the Soviet Union, however, few details of Moscow's thinking on military matters were available. In this book, Andrei Kokoshin reveals how Soviet military theorists developed and debated the concepts that provided the basis for the Kremlin's defense policies. Drawing on Soviet-era archives and unpublished materials, he sheds light on this important chapter in the history of Russia and the world.The book covers three main themes: the relationship between politics and military strategy in the Soviet Union; how the Soviet political and military leadership assessed threats to Soviet security, the nature of future wars, and methods of warfare; and the relationship between offense and defense in Soviet military strategy. Kokoshin places the strategic concepts behind Moscow's military policies in the context of internal and international struggles for power, and assesses the future role of military power in Russia's national security strategy.

    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00
  • America's Strategic Choices

    America's Strategic Choices

    Michael E. Brown

    Contending perspectives on the future of US grand strategy.

    Almost a decade has passed since the end of the Cold War, but the United States has yet to reach a consensus on a coherent approach to the international use of American power. The essays in this volume present contending perspectives on the future of US strategy. Options for US policy include primacy, cooperative security, selective engagement, and retrenchment. The volume includes the Clinton administration's National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement so readers can compare proposed strategies with the official US government position.

    • Paperback $19.50
  • Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union

    Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union

    Russian and American Perspectives

    Alexei Arbatov, Abram Chayes, Antonia Handler Chayes, and Lara Olson

    Since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, numerous ethnic and internal conflicts have emerged within and between the former Soviet republics. Vicious fighting has flared up in Georgia, Chechnya, Tajikistan, Moldova, and other areas, and tensions remain high in many of the newly independent states. Their causes are often misunderstood, and U.S. policymakers have paid little attention to their resolution. This collaborative effort by Russian and American scholars documents Russian policy toward ethno-national conflict in its "near-abroad", American policy toward these conflicts, and the attempts of international organizations to prevent and resolve them. Case studies consider the causes, dynamics, and prospects of conflicts in Latvia, the Crimea, the Trans-dneistr region of Moldova, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the region of North Ossetia and Ingushetia.

    Contributors Nadia Alexandrova-Arbatova, Alexei Arbatov, Vladimir Barsamov, Brian J. Boeck, Abram Chayes, Antonia Handler Chayes, Henry Hale, Michael Lysobey, Arthur G. Matirosyan, David Mendeloff, Laura Olson, Olga Osipova, Edward Ozhiganov, Tonya Putnam, George Raach, Brian D. Taylor, Alexander Yusupovsky

    CSIA Studies in International Security

    • Paperback $10.75 £8.99
  • Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific

    Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific

    Michael E. Brown and Šumit Ganguly

    Efforts to contend with tensions inherent in multiethnic societies; case studies of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, China, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

    Ethnic conflict, one of the most serious and widespread problems in the world today, can undermine efforts to promote political and economic development, as well as political, economic, and social justice. It can also lead to violence and open warfare, producing horrifying levels of death and destruction. Although government policies on ethnic issues often have profound effects on a country, the subject has been neglected by most scholars and analysts. This volume analyzes different policies governments have pursued in their efforts to contend with the tensions inherent in multiethnic societies. The book focuses on Asia and the Pacific, the most populous and economically vibrant part of the world. The heart of the book is a set of case studies of government policies in sixteen countries: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, China, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The studies consider a wide range of political, economic, educational, linguistic, and cultural policies, and how these policies have evolved over time. Using a broad comparative perspective to assess the effectiveness of different governmental approaches, the authors offer policy recommendations that cut across individual countries and regions.

    • Paperback $42.00 £33.00
  • Paths to Peace

    Paths to Peace

    Is Democracy the Answer?

    Miriam Fendius Elman

    Focusing on international crises between democratic, democratic-nondemocratic, and nondemocratic pairs of states that either escalated to war or were resolved peacefully, Paths to Peace explores the extent to which domestic norms and institutions influence threat perceptions and the process of foreign policymaking.

    Many political scientists have hailed the apparent existence of Democratic Peace—the absence of wars between democracies—as proof that a world of democracies would be a world without war. This idea challenges traditional approaches to international politics, which focus on the balance of power between states regardless of their political systems. It also has important implications for world politics, especially as President Clinton has made the promotion of democracy a cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy on the grounds that democracies never fight each other.This volume examines historical cases that shed light on various arguments that might account for a Democratic Peace. Focusing on international crises between democratic, democratic-nondemocratic, and nondemocratic pairs of states that either escalated to war or were resolved peacefully, Paths to Peace explores the extent to which domestic norms and institutions influence threat perceptions and the process of foreign policymaking. Cases involving democratic pairs include the Anglo-French entente cordiale, the Spanish-American War, Anglo-American peace since 1815, and Finland versus the Western democracies in World War II. Cases involving democracies and nondemocratic counterparts include the British-Argentine war over the Falklands, the Indo-Pakistani conflict, and Israel's invasion of Lebanon. Finally, cases involving nondemocratic relationships include events such as the Iran-Iraq War and examples of nondemocratic peace, such as the resolution of crises between Peru and Colombia, Indonesia and Malaysia, and Turkey and Greece.

    Contributors Kurt Dassel, Miriam Fendius Elman, Lawrence Freedman, Sumit Ganguly, Arie M. Kacowicz, Christopher Layne, Martin Malin, John C. Matthews III, John M. Owen, Stephen R. Rock

    • Paperback $35.00 £27.00
  • Allies Divided

    Allies Divided

    Transatlantic Policies for the Greater Middle East

    Robert D. Blackwill and Michael Stürmer

    The shifting global security and defense landscape of the post-Cold War era has led the West to reexamine regional priorities and existing international institutions. Many scholars have written on how best to coordinate policy on the security of Central Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union, and on reforming NATO and the OSCE. Very few scholars, however, have prescribed policy for transatlantic cooperation toward threats that transcend Europe and NATO, especially in the Middle East.Many transatlantic security concerns in the coming decades will originate not in Europe, but in the Greater Middle East, which encompasses the area from the Maghreb to the Caspian basin. The volume juxtaposes essays from U.S. and European scholars on selected areas and issues: the Arab-Israeli peace process, the Persian Gulf, Turkey and the Caspian Basin, Islamic extremism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and military force projection. Each author considers American and European strategies toward a particular issue and makes suggestions for future policy collaboration between the countries on both sides of the Atlantic.

    Contributors Robert D. Blackwill, Richard Falkenrath, Lawrence Freedman, Graham Fuller, Richard Haass, François Heisbourg, Geoffrey Kemp, Heinz Kramer, Richard Kugler, F. Stephen Larrabee, Rémy Leveau, Friedemann Müller, Volker Perthes, Johannes Reissner, Eberhard Rhein, Robert Satloff, Joanna Spear, Michael Stürmer

    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00
  • Dismantling the Cold War

    Dismantling the Cold War

    U.S. and NIS Perspectives on the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program

    John M. Shields and William C. Potter

    foreword by Senator Sam Nunn The 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union prompted international concern over the safety and security of the Soviet arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. In legislation sponsored by Senator Sam Nunn and Senator Richard Lugar, the U. S. Congress approved a program to assist Soviet weapons dismantlement. The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program has since authorized more than $1.5 billion for a wide array of weapons destruction, demilitarization, nuclear security, and nonproliferation activities in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. Despite strong bipartisan support, the CTR program has been hindered by a variety of organizational, technical, and political problems. Both donors and recipients have heatedly debated its effectiveness. Misinformation about the program abounds in the NIS as well as in the U.S. Congress, where program funding has been threatened by growing opposition to anything that might resemble foreign aid. Dismantling the Cold War is the first systematic assessment of the CTR program. It provides both insiders' views of how the complex policy initiative was conceived and "in-country" views of how it was carried out. This frank assessment of what U.S.-NIS cooperation has and has not accomplished offers programmatic, political, fiscal, organizational, and technical suggestions to help U.S. and NIS policymakers cope with the world's paramount proliferation threat.

    Contributors Oleg Bukharin, Richard Combs, Gloria Duffy, Dastan Eleukenov, Rose Gottemoeller, Kostyantyn Hryshchenko, Katherine E. Johnson, Oumirserik Kasenov, Igor Khripunov, Murat Laumulin, Evgeni P. Maslin, R. Adam Moody, Michael H. Newlin, Sam Nunn, Vladimir A. Orlov, Vyachaslau E. Paznyak, Alexander A. Pikayev, William C. Potter, John M. Shields, Jessica Eve Stern

    CSIA Studies in International Security

    • Paperback $32.00 £25.00
  • The Greek Paradox

    The Greek Paradox

    Promise Vs. Performance

    Graham Allison and Kalypso Nicolaïdis

    As a bridge between the East and West, a pole of stability in the Balkans, and a Mediterranean crossroads, Greece could play a significant role in the post-Cold War world. But Greece's performance in domestic and international policy falls short of this promise. The essays in The Greek Paradox look at some of the reasons for this gap and suggest possible political and economic reforms.The contributors, both scholars and policymakers, examine a range of contemporary issues in the Balkans and on NATO's southern flank. The essays shed light on nation building, political and economic development, modernization, and post-Cold War international relations.

    Contributors Graham T. Allison, Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, Michael S. Dukakis, Misha Glenny, Dimitris Keridis, F. Stephen Larrabee, Kalypso Nicolaïdis, Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Alexis Papahelas, Elizabeth Prodromou, Monteagle Stearns, Constantine Stephanopoulos, Stavros B. Thomadakis, Basilios E. Tsingos, Loukas Tsoukalis, Susan Woodward

    CSIA Studies in International Security

    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00
  • The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict

    Michael E. Brown

    Deadly internal conflicts threaten dozens of countries and major regions around the world. One of the most critical issues in contemporary international security, it is examined in this book by twenty experts of the Project on Internal Conflict at Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs. The first part of the book examines the sources of internal conflicts and the ways these may spill over or draw in neighboring states and the international community. Region by region, the book discusses the former Yugoslavia and the Balkans, East-central Europe, Russia and the former Soviet Union, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Central and South America. The second part examines specific problems, policy instruments, and key actors including: the control of aggressive nationalism, the prevention of secessionist violence, and the resolution of civil wars; the roles of the media and nongovernmental organizations; arms limitations and economic sanctions; military challenges; the policies of the United States and the United Nations; and the prospects for collective action. The book recommends specific approaches to help prevent and moderate internal conflict and to limit its spread when it arises.

    Contributors Rachel Bronson, Mark Chernick, Ivo Daalder, Matthew Evangelista, Richard Falkenrath, Trevor Findlay, Sumit Ganguly, Alicia Levine, Dan Lindley, John Matthews, Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, Elizabeth Rogers, Colin Scott, Joanna Spear, Stephen Stedman, Katherine Tucker, Milada Vachudova, Barbara Walter, Thomas Weiss

    • Hardcover $112.50
    • Paperback $10.75 £9.95
  • Shaping Europe's Military Order

    Shaping Europe's Military Order

    Richard A Falkenrath

    The legal foundation of the contemporary European security order is the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). Negotiated by NATO and the Warsaw Pact states as the Cold War was ending and implemented as the new Europe took shape, the CFE Treaty imposes strict limits on the armed forces of all the major European states. This book takes a detailed look at the origins and evolution of the CFE negotiations and the impact of the CFE Treaty on European Security. It draws extensively on interviews with participants in the CFE negotiations and offers a careful reconstruction of a process that contributed to the transformation of Cold War Europe, a critical assessment of the treaty's contribution to security in post-Cold War Europe, and an evaluation of the lessons of CFE for future conventional arms control initiatives. CSIA Studies in International Security, No. 6

    • Hardcover $39.95 £27.95
    • Paperback $28.00 £22.00
  • The Arms Production Dilemma

    The Arms Production Dilemma

    Contraction and Restraint in the World of the Combat Aircraft Industry

    Randall Forsberg

    The studies show how military strategy, planned forces, and the age of systems in the current inventory affect the domestic demand for new production; how the recent drop in domestic demand affects arms industries; and the extent to which governments and firms in the arms-producing nations are turning to exports to sustain the industries.

    In the shrinking arms market of the post-Cold War era, countries with advanced arms industries face difficult choices concerning force size, arms production, arms export, and defense industrial capacity. This book explores the links among these issues through a detailed study of the combat aircraft industries in the United States, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden—the seven countries that develop, produce, and export all of the world's technologically advanced weapon systems. The studies show how military strategy, planned forces, and the age of systems in the current inventory affect the domestic demand for new production; how the recent drop in domestic demand affects arms industries; and the extent to which governments and firms in the arms-producing nations are turning to exports to sustain the industries. Stunning changes in Russia's combat aircraft forces, industry, and strategy are detailed here for the first time, as are expected future Russian combat aircraft exports to China. Newly compiled data also show that in the United States and Russia and globally, arms production for export will exceed production for domestic use for the first time in history, starting in 1995. Arms production is thus increasingly dominated by commercial rather than security interests. Ultimately at issue is whether governments will exploit the opportunity offered by the dramatic post-Cold War contraction of the world arms market to reduce their armed forces and constrain international arms trade while shrinking the arms industry—or keep pushing arms exports that generate new threats and justify larger armed forces, more arms production, and bigger arms industries.

    • Hardcover $40.00
    • Paperback $33.00 £26.00
  • Empowering Technology

    Empowering Technology

    Implementing a U.S. Policy

    Lewis M. Branscomb

    Technology policy - whether we should have one and what form such a policy should take - was a core issue of the 1992 presidential campaign, and in February 1993 the Clinton administration confirmed that fostering new technologies will be a critical part of its agenda for redirecting the American economy. To help orient the inevitable debates on this agenda, experts from Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs here examine a set of key issues and problems that, taken together, define the scope and limits of such a policy. Among the topics discussed are the new relationship between federal and state governments implied by the administration's proposals, the usefulness of the concept of "critical technologies" for setting priorities, the creation of new missions for the national laboratories (particularly the three weapons laboratories), the changing nature of the social contract between the government and research universities, the problems that will confront the creation of a national information infrastruc­ture, the best ways to promote small- ­and medium-sized "driver" companies as well as civilian research and development generally, and the relationship between education and the requirements for work in the twenty-first century.

    • Hardcover $44.00
    • Paperback $30.00 £24.00