U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

  • The Second Newman Report

    National Policy and Higher Education

    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

    In the 1950s and 1960s, the right to higher education became an assumption for an ever greater number of Americans. This book documents the changeover from an aristocratic and meritocratic view of higher education to an egalitarian view, more accurately reflecting the current status of American society.

    Since the end of World War II, there has been a rapid increase in the amount of federal aid given to higher education. In the 1970s educators and federal policy makers have, however, come to realize that massive spending and an emphasis on widening access alone will not solve the basic problems of the quality and variety of educational opportunities that are available to the larger and more diverse group of people now seeking higher education. At the same time, there has been a switch in emphasis from the narrow concept of “higher education” (including colleges and universities only) to a broader concept of “postsecondary education” (including all modes of education beyond the high school level, such as community colleges, proprietary schools, in-house industrial programs, adult education courses).

    Citing such areas of concern as the decline in enrollment of private institutions, the swelling of public university enrollments, the creating of multi-campus-system bureaucracies with their tendency to breed other bureaucracies and an assembly-line educational and social mobility, this book concludes that now is the time to reexamine our concepts of the structure and purpose of higher education so that we can more realistically design federal involvement.

    The Task Force makes several recommendations, including more use of direct grants to students; the book concludes that “it is to the country's advantage to encourage a more open system of postsecondary education. We have favored openness and competition because we believe it will lead to both a more effective and a more efficient system.”

    • Hardcover $12.50
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  • Work In America

    Work In America

    Report of a Special Task Force to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

    Work In America discusses the fundamental role of work in the lives of most adults, pointing out that jobs as they are now create problems that can and do have serious effects on our society.

    Millions of Americans are dissatisfied with the quality of their working lives with dull—repetitive jobs that stifle autonomy and initiative. This year-long study prepared for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research brings together facts about the current nature of work and the workplace that have ominous implications for the social and economic strength of the nation as a whole.

    The demand for this report has been tremendous; HEW's initial supply was exhausted within a few days after publication. The Boston Globe says that “Work in America… may be one of the most important documents in recent years.” The research Institute of America reports in its Recommendations that “There is little doubt the facts in the report are right on target: The blue-collar blues are haunting the white-collar employee too; there's evidence that even many managers show signs of the blahs. A trade-off of money for leisure seems to be the longer-term trend.

    “Because this study is officially sponsored by the government, and since it's the latest attempt to pull together all the facets of the program, Work in America will have the long-range clout. You'll be hearing about it—pro and con—on TV & in the press. Congress will debate it, bureaucrats will scrap over the details.”

    And the New York Times remarks that “its findings directly challenge President Nixon's repeated assertions that some Americans are abandoning the 'work ethic' for the 'welfare ethic.'” In fact, just the oppose is true. The study provides evidence that satisfying work is a basic human need in that it establishes individual identity and self-respect and lends order to human life.

    Work in America discusses the fundamental role of work in the lives of most adults, pointing out that jobs as they are now create problems that can and do have serious effects on our society. It shows that work-related problems often result in declining physical and mental health, greater family and community instability, less “balanced”: sociopolitical attitudes, and in increase in drug abuse, alcohol addiction, aggression, and delinquency.

    The report calls for large-scale reforms to alter this situation, beginning with the basic redesign of jobs to allow more individual responsibility and autonomy. It also suggests retraining or “self-renewal” programs for any worker who wants job mobility or a second career, and it advocates government commitment to a “total” rather than to a full employment economy, which leaves approximately 4.5 percent of the citizens without jobs.

    “The report has already raised hackles within the Nixon Administration…. In fact, says one Labor Department official, the whole program of worker discontent 'would go away if sociologists and reporters would quit writing about it.' But this, the study says, is simply not the case—and it concludes with the particularly apt quotation from Albert Camus: 'Without work all life goes rotten. But when work is soulless, life stifles and dies.'”—Newsweek

    • Hardcover $15.00
    • Paperback $20.00