William J. Clancey

William J. Clancey is Chief Scientist of Human-Centered Computing in the Intelligent Systems Division at NASA Ames Research Center, and Senior Research Scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.

  • Working on Mars

    Working on Mars

    Voyages of Scientific Discovery with the Mars Exploration Rovers

    William J. Clancey

    What it's like to explore Mars from Earth: How the Mars rovers provide scientists with a virtual experience of being on Mars.

    Geologists in the field climb hills and hang onto craggy outcrops; they put their fingers in sand and scratch, smell, and even taste rocks. Beginning in 2004, however, a team of geologists and other planetary scientists did field science in a dark room in Pasadena, exploring Mars from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) by means of the remotely operated Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Clustered around monitors, living on Mars time, painstakingly plotting each movement of the rovers and their tools, sensors, and cameras, these scientists reported that they felt as if they were on Mars themselves, doing field science. The MER created a virtual experience of being on Mars. In this book, William Clancey examines how the MER has changed the nature of planetary field science.

    Drawing on his extensive observations of scientists in the field and at the JPL, Clancey investigates how the design of the rover mission enables field science on Mars, explaining how the scientists and rover engineers manipulate the vehicle and why the programmable tools and analytic instruments work so well for them. He shows how the scientists felt not as if they were issuing commands to a machine but rather as if they were working on the red planet, riding together in the rover on a voyage of discovery.

    Learn more about the book here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZQSWSZnTYs&feature=youtube_gdata

    • Hardcover $7.75 £5.99
    • Paperback $9.75 £7.99
  • Contemplating Minds

    Contemplating Minds

    A Forum for Artificial Intelligence

    William J. Clancey, Stephen Smoliar, and Mark J. Stefik

    Contemplating Minds brings together a selection of reviews from Artificial Intelligence in a form suitable for the general scientific reader, seminar organizer, or student wanting a critical introduction that synthesizes and compares some of the most important and influential books and ideas to have emerged in AI over the past decade.

    The book review column in Artificial Intelligence has evolved from simple reviews to a forum where reviewers and authors debate in essays, even tutorial presentations, the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence. Contemplating Minds brings together a selection of these reviews in a form suitable for the general scientific reader, seminar organizer, or student wanting a critical introduction that synthesizes and compares some of the most important and influential books and ideas to have emerged in AI over the past decade.

    Contemplating Minds is divided into four parts, each with a brief introduction, that address the major themes in artificial intelligence, human intelligence, and cognitive science research: Symbolic Models of Mind, Situated Action, Architectures of Interaction, and Memory and Consciousness. The books being debated include those by such influential authors as Allen Newell (Unified Theories of Cognition), Terry Winograd and F. Flores (Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design), Herbert Simon (The Sciences of the Artificial, second edition), Lucy Suchman (Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication), Marvin Minsky (The Society of Mind), Gerald Edelman (Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness, Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind), and Daniel Dennett (Consciousness Explained). The list of reviewers is equally distinguished.

    • Paperback $80.00 £65.00
  • Artificial Intelligence and Learning Environments

    Artificial Intelligence and Learning Environments

    William J. Clancey and Elliot Soloway

    These essays explore cognitively oriented empirical trials that use AI programming as a modeling methodology and that can provide valuable insight into a variety of learning problems.

    New perspectives and techniques are shaping the field of computer-aided instruction. These essays explore cognitively oriented empirical trials that use AI programming as a modeling methodology and that can provide valuable insight into a variety of learning problems. Drawing on work in cognitive theory, plan-based program recognition, qualitative reasoning, and cognitive models of learning and teaching, this exciting research covers a wide range of alternatives to tutoring dialogues.

    Contents Artificial Intelligence and Learning Environments, William J. Clancey, Elliot Soloway • Cognitive Modeling and Intelligence Tutoring, John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett, Matthew W. Lewis • Understanding and Debugging Novice Programs, W. Lewis Johnson • Causal Model Progressions as a Foundation for Intelligent Learning Environments, Barbara Y. White and John R. Frederiksen

    • Paperback $30.00 £25.00

Contributor

  • Simulation and Its Discontents

    Simulation and Its Discontents

    Sherry Turkle

    How the simulation and visualization technologies so pervasive in science, engineering, and design have changed our way of seeing the world.

    Over the past twenty years, the technologies of simulation and visualization have changed our ways of looking at the world. In Simulation and Its Discontents, Sherry Turkle examines the now dominant medium of our working lives and finds that simulation has become its own sensibility. We hear it in Turkle's description of architecture students who no longer design with a pencil, of science and engineering students who admit that computer models seem more “real” than experiments in physical laboratories.

    Echoing architect Louis Kahn's famous question, “What does a brick want?”, Turkle asks, “What does simulation want?” Simulations want, even demand, immersion, and the benefits are clear. Architects create buildings unimaginable before virtual design; scientists determine the structure of molecules by manipulating them in virtual space; physicians practice anatomy on digitized humans. But immersed in simulation, we are vulnerable. There are losses as well as gains. Older scientists describe a younger generation as “drunk with code.” Young scientists, engineers, and designers, full citizens of the virtual, scramble to capture their mentors' tacit knowledge of buildings and bodies. From both sides of a generational divide, there is anxiety that in simulation, something important is slipping away. Turkle's examination of simulation over the past twenty years is followed by four in-depth investigations of contemporary simulation culture: space exploration, oceanography, architecture, and biology.

    • Hardcover $29.95 £25.00