This reprint of Douglas Hartree's principal work also includes his inaugural Cambridge lecture, Calculating Machines: Recent and Prospective Developments and Their Impact on Mathematical Physics, which is extremely difficult to obtain and which makes ideal preliminary reading for the main set of lectures presented in Calculating Instruments and Machines. In these, Hartree provided the first comprehensive survey of the significant developments in computation that were going on at the time—the main directions of development in storage systems, serial machines, and parallel progr

Dataset shift is a common problem in predictive modeling that occurs when the joint distribution of inputs and outputs differs between training and test stages. Covariate shift, a particular case of dataset shift, occurs when only the input distribution changes. Dataset shift is present in most practical applications, for reasons ranging from the bias introduced by experimental design to the irreproducibility of the testing conditions at training time.

The Internet gives us access to a wealth of information in languages we don’t understand. The investigation of automated or semi-automated approaches to translation has become a thriving research field with enormous commercial potential. This volume investigates how Machine Learning techniques can improve Statistical Machine Translation, currently at the forefront of research in the field. The book looks first at enabling technologies--technologies that solve problems that are not Machine Translation proper but are linked closely to the development of a Machine Translation system.

Learning to perform complex action strategies is an important problem in the fields of artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning. Filled with interesting new experimental results, Learning in Embedded Systems explores algorithms that learn efficiently from trial-and error experience with an external world.

Handling inherent uncertainty and exploiting compositional structure are fundamental to understanding and designing large-scale systems. Statistical relational learning builds on ideas from probability theory and statistics to address uncertainty while incorporating tools from logic, databases and programming languages to represent structure. In Introduction to Statistical Relational Learning, leading researchers in this emerging area of machine learning describe current formalisms, models, and algorithms that enable effective and robust reasoning about richly structured systems and data.

Pervasive and networked computers have dramatically reduced the cost of collecting and distributing large datasets. In this context, machine learning algorithms that scale poorly could simply become irrelevant. We need learning algorithms that scale linearly with the volume of the data while maintaining enough statistical efficiency to outperform algorithms that simply process a random subset of the data.

Machine learning develops intelligent computer systems that are able to generalize from previously seen examples. A new domain of machine learning, in which the prediction must satisfy the additional constraints found in structured data, poses one of machine learning’s greatest challenges: learning functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output domains. This volume presents and analyzes the state of the art in machine learning algorithms and theory in this novel field.

Regression and classification methods based on similarity of the input to stored examples have not been widely used in applications involving very large sets of high-dimensional data. Recent advances in computational geometry and machine learning, however, may alleviate the problems in using these methods on large data sets. This volume presents theoretical and practical discussions of nearest-neighbor (NN) methods in machine learning and examines computer vision as an application domain in which the benefit of these advanced methods is often dramatic.

Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a principled, practical, probabilistic approach to learning in kernel machines. GPs have received increased attention in the machine-learning community over the past decade, and this book provides a long-needed systematic and unified treatment of theoretical and practical aspects of GPs in machine learning.