What assumptions and methods allow us to turn observations into causal knowledge, and how can even incomplete causal knowledge be used in planning and prediction to influence and control our environment? In this book Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines address these questions using the formalism of Bayes networks, with results that have been applied in diverse areas of research in the social, behavioral, and physical sciences.
Performance evaluation and benchmarking are of concern to all computer-related disciplines. A benchmark is a standard program or set of programs that can be run on different computers to give an accurate measure of their performance. This book covers a variety of aspects of computer performance evaluation, with a focus on Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) benchmarks. SPEC is a nonprofit organization whose members represent industry, academia, and other organizations.
The Robot in the Garden initiates a critical theory of telerobotics and introduces telepistemology, the study of knowledge acquired at a distance. Many of our most influential technologies, the telescope, telephone, and television, were developed to provide knowledge at a distance. Telerobots, remotely controlled robots, facilitate action at a distance. Specialists use telerobots to explore actively environments such as Mars, the Titanic, and Chernobyl. Military personnel increasingly employ reconnaissance drones and telerobotic missiles.
Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation that evolves programs and program-like executable structures for developing reliable time- and cost-effective applications. It does this by breeding programs over many generations, using the principles of natural selection, sexual recombination, and mutuation. This third volume of Advances in Genetic Programming highlights many of the recent technical advances in this increasingly popular field.
Supercomputing research--the goal of which is to make computers that are ever faster and more powerful--has been at the cutting edge of computer technology since the early 1960s. Until recently, research cost in the millions of dollars, and many of the companies that originally made supercomputers are now out of business.The early supercomputers used distributed computing and parallel processing to link processors together in a single machine, often called a mainframe.
ZPL is a new array programming language for science and engineering computation. Designed for fast execution on both sequential and parallel computers, it is intended to replace languages such as Fortran and C. Because ZPL benefits from recent research in parallel compilation, it provides a convenient high-level programming medium for supercomputers with efficiency comparable to hand-coded message-passing programs.
The concept of fuzzy sets is one of the most fundamental and influential tools in computational intelligence. Fuzzy sets can provide solutions to a broad range of problems of control, pattern classification, reasoning, planning, and computer vision. This book bridges the gap that has developed between theory and practice. The authors explain what fuzzy sets are, why they work, when they should be used (and when they shouldn't), and how to design systems using them.
PLAPACK is a library infrastructure for the parallel implementation of linear algebra algorithms and applications on distributed memory supercomputers such as the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2, Cray T3D/T3E, SGI PowerChallenge, and Convex Exemplar. This infrastructure allows library developers, scientists, and engineers to exploit a natural approach to encoding so-called blocked algorithms, which achieve high performance by operating on submatrices and subvectors.