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Hardcover | Out of Print | ISBN: 9780262025836 | 592 pp. | 8 x 9 in | 181 illus.| September 2005
Paperback | $44.00 Text | £30.95 | ISBN: 9780262524797 | 592 pp. | 8 x 9 in | 181 illus.| August 2007

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Cities and Complexity

Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals


As urban planning moves from a centralized, top-down approach to a decentralized, bottom-up perspective, our conception of urban systems is changing. In Cities and Complexity, Michael Batty offers a comprehensive view of urban dynamics in the context of complexity theory, presenting models that demonstrate how complexity theory can embrace a myriad of processes and elements that combine into organic wholes. He argues that bottom-up processes—in which the outcomes are always uncertain—can combine with new forms of geometry associated with fractal patterns and chaotic dynamics to provide theories that are applicable to highly complex systems such as cities.

Batty begins with models based on cellular automata (CA), simulating urban dynamics through the local actions of automata. He then introduces agent-based models (ABM), in which agents are mobile and move between locations. These models relate to many scales, from the scale of the street to patterns and structure at the scale of the urban region. Finally, Batty develops applications of all these models to specific urban situations, discussing concepts of criticality, threshold, surprise, novelty, and phase transition in the context of spatial developments. Every theory and model presented in the book is developed through examples that range from the simplified and hypothetical to the actual. Deploying extensive visual, mathematical, and textual material, Cities and Complexity will be read both by urban researchers and by complexity theorists with an interest in new kinds of computational models.

Sample chapters and examples from the book, and other related material, can be found at

About the Author

Michael Batty is Bartlett Professor of Planning at University College London, where he is Chairman of the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA), and Visiting Distinguished Professor at Arizona State University. He is the coauthor of Fractal Cities: A Geometry of Form and Function and the author of Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals (MIT Press).


“Batty is a master at presenting challenging material in 'gentle though rigorous' ways, judiciously combining text, graphics, and notation, and moving from easy-to-grasp toy problems to real examples.”
Helen Couclelis, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara
Cities and Complexity unites into an integrated whole pathbreaking urban research centered on methods of nonlinear dynamic emergence and self-organization. This book will be an ideal text for advanced students of urban systems and an invaluable guide for their instructors, as well as for practitioners who seek to simulate alternative futures.”
Brian J.L. Berry, Lloyd Viel Berkner Regental Professor and Dean of the School of Social Science, University of Texas at Dallas