India's economy over the last decade looks in many ways like a success story; after a major economic crisis in 1991, followed by bold reform measures, the economy has experienced a rapid economic growth rate, more foreign investment, and a boom in the information technology sector. Yet many in the country still suffer from crushing poverty, and social and political unrest remains a problem.
This second edition of an innovative undergraduate text offers an approach to understanding different economic systems that reflects both recent transformations in the world economy and recent changes in the field of Comparative Economic Systems. The traditional way of teaching comparative economics, with its reliance on relatively simple dichotomies (private vs. state, planning vs. market) does not take into consideration the many variants and mixtures of economic systems that exist in the real world.
In Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa, Marcel Fafchamps synthesizes the results of recent surveys of indigenous market institutions in twelve countries, including Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, and presents findings about economics exchange in Africa that have implications both for future research and current policy. Employing empirical data as well as theoretical models that clarify the data, Fafchamps takes as his unifying principle the difficulties of contract enforcement.
Throughout Joseph Stiglitz's long and distinguished career in economics, the focus has been on the real world, with all of its imperfections. His 2001 Nobel Prize recognized his pioneering research in imperfect information; his work in other areas, including macroeconomics, public economics, and development economics, has been just as influential. This volume, a collection of essays written to mark Stiglitz's sixtieth birthday, reflects the wide-ranging influence of "Stiglitzian" economics.
The years between 1940 and 1960 in Chile were marked by economic stagnation. Urban migration, reflecting this economic decay, as well as demographic conditions, are the subject of this study. The work attempts to coordinate the record of Chile's economic development with an account of its concomitant internal migration. In particular, shifts in urban population and changes in the structure of the labor force are explored in an attempt to understand the role of migration.
Trade between developed countries has so accelerated in recent decades that it tends to obscure the less obvious returns but considerable potential of business opportunities in the developing nations. To the businessman thinking of investing in an underdeveloped market the whole issue is fraught with uncertainties, of which the structuring of investment and choice of partners are perhaps the most important and perplexing.
A developing country's choice of an appropriate technology from among those available for use in a particular industry is critical: alternative technological strategies that involve varying mixes of capital, labor, and social costs could have significantly different impacts not only on the industry but also on the country itself, especially one whose industrial base is restricted. This book presents one of the first empirical studies in this area.
Virtually all industrialized nations have annual per capita incomes greater than $15,000; meanwhile, over three billion people, more than half the worlds population, live in countries with per capita incomes of less than $700. Development economics studies the economies of such countries and the problems they face, including poverty, chronic underemployment, low wages, rampant inflation, and oppressive international debt.
The former socialist countries’ transition to market economies is one of the momentous transformations in modern history. The pace and degree of success have varied widely, and there is increasing divergence in performance, structure, and institutions among the transition economies. These differences are largely determined by country-specific conditions and political configurations.