Given the evaluator, we have in our hands a description (expressed in Lisp) of the process by which Lisp expressions are evaluated. One advantage of expressing the evaluator as a program is that we can run the program. This gives us, running within Lisp, a working model of how Lisp itself evaluates expressions. This can serve as a framework for experimenting with evaluation rules, as we shall do later in this chapter.
Our evaluator program reduces expressions ultimately to the application of primitive procedures. Therefore, all that we need to run the evaluator is to create a mechanism that calls on the underlying Lisp system to model the application of primitive procedures.
There must be a binding for each primitive procedure name, so that when eval evaluates the operator of an application of a primitive, it will find an object to pass to apply. We thus set up a global environment that associates unique objects with the names of the primitive procedures that can appear in the expressions we will be evaluating. The global environment also includes bindings for the symbols true and false, so that they can be used as variables in expressions to be evaluated.
(define (setup-environment) (let ((initial-env (extend-environment (primitive-procedure-names) (primitive-procedure-objects) the-empty-environment))) (define-variable! 'true true initial-env) (define-variable! 'false false initial-env) initial-env)) (define the-global-environment (setup-environment))
It does not matter how we represent the primitive procedure objects, so long as apply can identify and apply them by using the procedures primitive-procedure? and apply-primitive-procedure. We have chosen to represent a primitive procedure as a list beginning with the symbol primitive and containing a procedure in the underlying Lisp that implements that primitive.
(define (primitive-procedure? proc) (tagged-list? proc 'primitive))
(define (primitive-implementation proc) (cadr proc))
Setup-environment will get the primitive names and implementation procedures from a list:
(define primitive-procedures (list (list 'car car) (list 'cdr cdr) (list 'cons cons) (list 'null? null?) more primitives )) (define (primitive-procedure-names) (map car primitive-procedures))
(define (primitive-procedure-objects) (map (lambda (proc) (list 'primitive (cadr proc))) primitive-procedures))
To apply a primitive procedure, we simply apply the implementation procedure to the arguments, using the underlying Lisp system:
(define (apply-primitive-procedure proc args) (apply-in-underlying-scheme (primitive-implementation proc) args))
For convenience in running the metacircular evaluator, we provide a driver loop that models the read-eval-print loop of the underlying Lisp system. It prints a prompt, reads an input expression, evaluates this expression in the global environment, and prints the result. We precede each printed result by an output prompt so as to distinguish the value of the expression from other output that may be printed.
(define input-prompt ";;; M-Eval input:") (define output-prompt ";;; M-Eval value:") (define (driver-loop) (prompt-for-input input-prompt) (let ((input (read))) (let ((output (eval input the-global-environment))) (announce-output output-prompt) (user-print output))) (driver-loop)) (define (prompt-for-input string) (newline) (newline) (display string) (newline))We use a special printing procedure, user-print, to avoid printing the environment part of a compound procedure, which may be a very long list (or may even contain cycles).
(define (announce-output string) (newline) (display string) (newline))
(define (user-print object) (if (compound-procedure? object) (display (list 'compound-procedure (procedure-parameters object) (procedure-body object) '<procedure-env>)) (display object)))
Now all we need to do to run the evaluator is to initialize the global environment and start the driver loop. Here is a sample interaction:
(define the-global-environment (setup-environment)) (driver-loop) ;;; M-Eval input: (define (append x y) (if (null? x) y (cons (car x) (append (cdr x) y)))) ;;; M-Eval value: ok ;;; M-Eval input: (append '(a b c) '(d e f)) ;;; M-Eval value: (a b c d e f)
Exercise. Eva Lu Ator and Louis Reasoner are each experimenting with the metacircular evaluator. Eva types in the definition of map, and runs some test programs that use it. They work fine. Louis, in contrast, has installed the system version of map as a primitive for the metacircular evaluator. When he tries it, things go terribly wrong. Explain why Louis's map fails even though Eva's works.