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Next: Monitoring Machine Performance Up: A Register-Machine Simulator Previous: The Assembler

Generating Execution Procedures for Instructions

The assembler calls make-execution-procedure to generate the execution procedure for an instruction. Like the analyze procedure in the evaluator of section [*], this dispatches on the type of instruction to generate the appropriate execution procedure.

(define (make-execution-procedure inst labels machine
                                  pc flag stack ops)
  (cond ((eq? (car inst) 'assign)
         (make-assign inst machine labels ops pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'test)
         (make-test inst machine labels ops flag pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'branch)
         (make-branch inst machine labels flag pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'goto)
         (make-goto inst machine labels pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'save)
         (make-save inst machine stack pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'restore)
         (make-restore inst machine stack pc))
        ((eq? (car inst) 'perform)
         (make-perform inst machine labels ops pc))
        (else (error "Unknown instruction type - ASSEMBLE"

For each type of instruction in the register-machine language, there is a generator that builds an appropriate execution procedure. The details of these procedures determine both the syntax and meaning of the individual instructions in the register-machine language. We use data abstraction to isolate the detailed syntax of register-machine expressions from the general execution mechanism, as we did for evaluators in section [*], by using syntax procedures to extract and classify the parts of an instruction.

Assign instructions

The make-assign procedure handles assign instructions:

(define (make-assign inst machine labels operations pc)
  (let ((target
         (get-register machine (assign-reg-name inst)))
        (value-exp (assign-value-exp inst)))
    (let ((value-proc
           (if (operation-exp? value-exp)
                value-exp machine labels operations)
                (car value-exp) machine labels))))
      (lambda ()                ; execution procedure for assign
        (set-contents! target (value-proc))
        (advance-pc pc)))))
Make-assign extracts the target register name (the second element of the instruction) and the value expression (the rest of the list that forms the instruction) from the assign instruction using the selectors
(define (assign-reg-name assign-instruction)
  (cadr assign-instruction))

(define (assign-value-exp assign-instruction)
  (cddr assign-instruction))
The register name is looked up with get-register to produce the target register object. The value expression is passed to make-operation-exp if the value is the result of an operation, and to make-primitive-exp otherwise. These procedures (shown below) parse the value expression and produce an execution procedure for the value. This is a procedure of no arguments, called value-proc, which will be evaluated during the simulation to produce the actual value to be assigned to the register. Notice that the work of looking up the register name and parsing the value expression is performed just once, at assembly time, not every time the instruction is simulated. This saving of work is the reason we use execution procedures, and corresponds directly to the saving in work we obtained by separating program analysis from execution in the evaluator of section [*].

The result returned by make-assign is the execution procedure for the assign instruction. When this procedure is called (by the machine model's execute procedure), it sets the contents of the target register to the result obtained by executing value-proc. Then it advances the pc to the next instruction by running the procedure

(define (advance-pc pc)
  (set-contents! pc (cdr (get-contents pc))))
Advance-pc is the normal termination for all instructions except branch and goto.

Test, branch, and goto instructions

Make-test handles test instructions in a similar way. It extracts the expression that specifies the condition to be tested and generates an execution procedure for it. At simulation time, the procedure for the condition is called, the result is assigned to the flag register, and the pc is advanced:

(define (make-test inst machine labels operations flag pc)
  (let ((condition (test-condition inst)))
    (if (operation-exp? condition)
        (let ((condition-proc
                condition machine labels operations)))
          (lambda ()
            (set-contents! flag (condition-proc))
            (advance-pc pc)))
        (error "Bad TEST instruction - ASSEMBLE" inst))))

(define (test-condition test-instruction)
  (cdr test-instruction))

The execution procedure for a branch instruction checks the contents of the flag register and either sets the contents of the pc to the branch destination (if the branch is taken) or else just advances the pc (if the branch is not taken). Notice that the indicated destination in a branch instruction must be a label, and the make-branch procedure enforces this. Notice also that the label is looked up at assembly time, not each time the branch instruction is simulated.

(define (make-branch inst machine labels flag pc)
  (let ((dest (branch-dest inst)))
    (if (label-exp? dest)
        (let ((insts
               (lookup-label labels (label-exp-label dest))))
          (lambda ()
            (if (get-contents flag)
                (set-contents! pc insts)
                (advance-pc pc))))
        (error "Bad BRANCH instruction - ASSEMBLE" inst))))

(define (branch-dest branch-instruction)
  (cadr branch-instruction))

A goto instruction is similar to a branch, except that the destination may be specified either as a label or as a register, and there is no condition to check--the pc is always set to the new destination.

(define (make-goto inst machine labels pc)
  (let ((dest (goto-dest inst)))
    (cond ((label-exp? dest)
           (let ((insts
                  (lookup-label labels
                                (label-exp-label dest))))
             (lambda () (set-contents! pc insts))))
          ((register-exp? dest)
           (let ((reg
                  (get-register machine
                                (register-exp-reg dest))))
             (lambda ()
               (set-contents! pc (get-contents reg)))))
          (else (error "Bad GOTO instruction - ASSEMBLE"

(define (goto-dest goto-instruction)
  (cadr goto-instruction))

Other instructions

The stack instructions save and restore simply use the stack with the designated register and advance the pc:

(define (make-save inst machine stack pc)
  (let ((reg (get-register machine
                           (stack-inst-reg-name inst))))
    (lambda ()
      (push stack (get-contents reg))
      (advance-pc pc))))

(define (make-restore inst machine stack pc)
  (let ((reg (get-register machine
                           (stack-inst-reg-name inst))))
    (lambda ()
      (set-contents! reg (pop stack))    
      (advance-pc pc))))

(define (stack-inst-reg-name stack-instruction)
  (cadr stack-instruction))

The final instruction type, handled by make-perform, generates an execution procedure for the action to be performed. At simulation time, the action procedure is executed and the pc advanced.

(define (make-perform inst machine labels operations pc)
  (let ((action (perform-action inst)))
    (if (operation-exp? action)
        (let ((action-proc
                action machine labels operations)))
          (lambda ()
            (advance-pc pc)))
        (error "Bad PERFORM instruction - ASSEMBLE" inst))))

(define (perform-action inst) (cdr inst))

Execution procedures for subexpressions

The value of a reg, label, or const expression may be needed for assignment to a register (make-assign) or for input to an operation (make-operation-exp, below). The following procedure generates execution procedures to produce values for these expressions during the simulation:

(define (make-primitive-exp exp machine labels)
  (cond ((constant-exp? exp)
         (let ((c (constant-exp-value exp)))
           (lambda () c)))
        ((label-exp? exp)
         (let ((insts
                (lookup-label labels
                              (label-exp-label exp))))
           (lambda () insts)))
        ((register-exp? exp)
         (let ((r (get-register machine
                                (register-exp-reg exp))))
           (lambda () (get-contents r))))
         (error "Unknown expression type - ASSEMBLE" exp))))
The syntax of reg, label, and const expressions is determined by
(define (register-exp? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'reg))

(define (register-exp-reg exp) (cadr exp))

(define (constant-exp? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'const))

(define (constant-exp-value exp) (cadr exp))

(define (label-exp? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'label))

(define (label-exp-label exp) (cadr exp))

Assign, perform, and test instructions may include the application of a machine operation (specified by an op expression) to some operands (specified by reg and const expressions). The following procedure produces an execution procedure for an ``operation expression''--a list containing the operation and operand expressions from the instruction:

(define (make-operation-exp exp machine labels operations)
  (let ((op (lookup-prim (operation-exp-op exp) operations))
         (map (lambda (e)
                (make-primitive-exp e machine labels))
              (operation-exp-operands exp))))
    (lambda ()
      (apply op (map (lambda (p) (p)) aprocs)))))
The syntax of operation expressions is determined by
(define (operation-exp? exp)
  (and (pair? exp) (tagged-list? (car exp) 'op)))

(define (operation-exp-op operation-exp)
  (cadr (car operation-exp)))

(define (operation-exp-operands operation-exp)
  (cdr operation-exp))
Observe that the treatment of operation expressions is very much like the treatment of procedure applications by the analyze-application procedure in the evaluator of section [*] in that we generate an execution procedure for each operand. At simulation time, we call the operand procedures and apply the Scheme procedure that simulates the operation to the resulting values. The simulation procedure is found by looking up the operation name in the operation table for the machine:
(define (lookup-prim symbol operations)
  (let ((val (assoc symbol operations)))
    (if val
        (cadr val)
        (error "Unknown operation - ASSEMBLE" symbol))))

Exercise. The treatment of machine operations above permits them to operate on labels as well as on constants and the contents of registers. Modify the expression-processing procedures to enforce the condition that operations can be used only with registers and constants.

Exercise. Design a new syntax for register-machine instructions and modify the simulator to use your new syntax. Can you implement your new syntax without changing any part of the simulator except the syntax procedures in this section?

Exercise. When we introduced save and restore in section [*], we didn't specify what would happen if you tried to restore a register that was not the last one saved, as in the sequence

(save y)
(save x)
(restore y)
There are several reasonable possibilities for the meaning of restore:

a(restore y) puts into y the last value saved on the stack, regardless of what register that value came from. This is the way our simulator behaves. Show how to take advantage of this behavior to eliminate one instruction from the Fibonacci machine of section [*] (figure [*]).

b(restore y) puts into y the last value saved on the stack, but only if that value was saved from y; otherwise, it signals an error. Modify the simulator to behave this way. You will have to change save to put the register name on the stack along with the value.

c(restore y) puts into y the last value saved from y regardless of what other registers were saved after y and not restored. Modify the simulator to behave this way. You will have to associate a separate stack with each register. You should make the initialize-stack operation initialize all the register stacks.

Exercise. The simulator can be used to help determine the data paths required for implementing a machine with a given controller. Extend the assembler to store the following information in the machine model:

Extend the message-passing interface to the machine to provide access to this new information. To test your analyzer, define the Fibonacci machine from figure [*] and examine the lists you constructed.

Exercise. Modify the simulator so that it uses the controller sequence to determine what registers the machine has rather than requiring a list of registers as an argument to make-machine. Instead of pre-allocating the registers in make-machine, you can allocate them one at a time when they are first seen during assembly of the instructions.

next up previous contents
Next: Monitoring Machine Performance Up: A Register-Machine Simulator Previous: The Assembler
Ryan Bender