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First published 20 July 2015

Simpson’s Paradox, Co-operation and Individuality in Bacterial Biofilms

Alexandra Penn

Abstract (Excerpt)

Bacteria often live in group structures known as biofilms within which they commonly display co-operative behaviours, such as the production of public goods (Ghannoum & O’Toole 2004, Crespi 2001, West et al. 2007). Noncooperative cheats arise commonly in biofilms (de Vos et al. 2001, Schaber et al. 2004), but despite what theory might predict, (Hardin 1968, Rankin et al. 2007), cooperation does not seem to be disrupted.