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Eleanor Selfridge-Field

Eleanor Selfridge-Field is Professor of Music and Symbolic Systems at Stanford University and a Senior Research Associate at the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities.

Titles by This Editor

Computing in Musicology 14

Early Western music and the art music of the non-Western world both lack highly specified, standardized systems of notation. A serious impediment to the systematic study of early and non-Western music arises when a repertory has no extensive notational system, or multiple, non-standardized ones. In different ways, these conditions pertain to medieval and Renaissance music in the West, and to the art music of Asia, which has traditionally depended on oral tradition rather than notation. Computers hold great potential for the analysis of early music repertories and for the study of music that lies outside the Western tradition. This volume of Computing in Musicology considers approaches to the computer representation, interchange, and analysis of music that predates Western European art music, lies outside the bounds of Western European art music, or both. It describes efforts to provide new tools that may make such work more practical in the future, and it brings fresh insights to the repertories themselves. Initial articles in this issue also treat current work on data interchange involving XML, since interchangeability remains an important ingredient of representational designs for all kinds of music.

Contributors come from the fields of musicology and ethnomusicology, audio and software engineering, and mathematics and computer science. They include Parag Chordia, Sachiko Deguchi, Annalisa Doneda, Michael Good, Christine Jeanneret, Arvindh Krishnaswamy, Panayotis Mavromatis, Laurent Pugin, Craig Stuart Sapp, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Katsuhiko Shirai, Iman S. H. Suyoto, Alexandra L. Uitdenbogerd, and Joshua Veltman.

Methods, Models, and User Studies

The field of music query has grown from tentative beginnings in bibliographical systems of earlier decades to a substantial area of interdisciplinary studies in little more than a decade. This volume assembles recent studies from Europe and North America concerned with the query and analysis of musical data. Among these, methods for the synchronization of sound and symbolic data, for automatic analysis through perceptual rules, and for computing a "transportation" distance for thematic comparison are described. The modeling of rhythmic motifs, of melodic traits, and of cognitive distance are discussed. User studies report on human preferences in modes of query (humming vs. tapping, etc.) and on the comparative success rates of more than two dozen proposed metrics for melodic comparison.

Representation, Retrieval, Restoration

The Virtual Score examines a broad range of approaches to working with musical scores in ways suited to electronic distribution. The first section, on musical representation and interchange, discusses early music and its multiple editorial stances, scores in Braille musical notation (with and without NIFF), the GUIDO format for "adequate" (as opposed to comprehensive) music representation, Extensible Markup Language (XML) and music, and the latest methods for distributing scores online. The second section discusses retrieval and/or analysis of data from encoded melodies. The final section discusses the use of image-processing software to restore lost features of primary sources of music prints and manuscripts, to archive the original and/or restored images, and, in some cases, to facilitate electronic access to the images.

Concepts, Procedures, and Applications

This volume covers a wide range of approaches to fundamental questions about music, such as: What is similarity in music? How do we recognize it? How can we program computers to recognize it? Topics include concepts and procedures, tools and applications, human melodic judgments, and online tools for melodic searching. The contributors draw on theoretical approaches and practical results from computer science and network models, folk-music archives and bibliographical collaborations, algorithmic composition, classical-music history, ethnomusicology and social psychology, and case law in claims of popular music plagiarism.

Contributors:
David Bainbridge, David Cope, Tim Crawford, Charles Cronin, Ewa Dahlig, Dominik Hörnel, John Howard, Costas S. Iliopoulos, Andreas Kornstädt, Rodger J. McNab, Nigel Nettheim, Donncha Ó Maidín, Rajeev Raman, Helmut Schaffrath, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Lloyd A. Smith, Ian H. Witten, Masato Yako.

Computing in Musicology 11

The Handbook of Musical Codes


The establishment of the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) in the late 1980s allowed hobbyists and musicians to experiment with sound control in ways that previously had been possible only in research studios. MIDI is now the most prevalent representation of music, but what it represents is based on hardware control protocols for sound synthesis. Programs that support sound input for graphics output necessarily span a gamut of representational categories. What is most likely to be lost is any sense of the musical work. Thus, for those involved in pedagogy, analysis, simulation, notation, and music theory, the nature of the representation matters a great deal. An understanding of the data requirements of different applications is fundamental to the creation of interchange codes.

The contributors to Beyond MIDI present a broad range of schemes, illustrating a wide variety of approaches to music representation. Generally, each chapter describes the history and intended purposes of the code, a description of the representation of the primary attributes of music (pitch, duration, articulation, ornamentation, dynamics, and timbre), a description of the file organization, some mention of existing data in the format, resources for further information, and at least one encoded example. The book also shows how intended applications influence the kinds of musical information that are encoded.

Contributors: David Bainbridge, Ulf Berggren, Roger D. Boyle, Donald Byrd, David Cooper, Edmund Correia, Jr., David Cottle, Tim Crawford, J. Stephen Dydo, Brent A. Field, Roger Firman, John Gibson, Cindy Grande, Lippold Haken, Thomas Hall, David Halperin, Philip Hazel, Walter B. Hewlett, John Howard, David Huron, Werner Icking, David Jaffe, Bettye Krolick, Max V. Mathews, Toshiaki Matsushima, Steven R. Newcomb, Kia-Chuan Ng, Kjell E. Nordli, Sile O'Modhrain, Perry Roland, Helmut Schaffrath, Bill Schottstaedt, Eleanor Selfrdige-Field, Peer Sitter, Donald Sloan, Leland Smith, Andranick Tanguiane, Lynn M. Trowbridge, Frans Wiering.