The 1994-1995 Mexican crisis was the first in a succession of financial crises to hit emerging markets in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, and Turkey. In almost all these cases, problems in the banking sector played a key role. Any analysis of recent developments in emerging market economies must consider two questions: What is the degree of financial vulnerability in emerging market economies, and what, if any, is the connection between the exchange rate regime and financial vulnerability?
The former socialist countries’ transition to market economies is one of the momentous transformations in modern history. The pace and degree of success have varied widely, and there is increasing divergence in performance, structure, and institutions among the transition economies. These differences are largely determined by country-specific conditions and political configurations.