Do Apes Read Minds?
By adulthood, most of us have become experts in human behavior, able to make sense of the myriad behaviors we find in environments ranging from the family home to the local mall and beyond. In philosophy of mind, our understanding of others has been largely explained in terms of knowing others' beliefs and desires; describing others' behavior in these terms is the core of what is known as folk psychology. In Do Apes Read Minds? Kristin Andrews challenges this view of folk psychology, arguing that we don’t consider others' beliefs and desires when predicting most quotidian behavior, and that our explanations in these terms are often inaccurate or unhelpful. Rather than mindreading, or understanding others as receptacles for propositional attitudes, Andrews claims that folk psychologists see others first as whole persons with traits, emotions, and social relations.
Drawing on research in developmental psychology, social psychology, and animal cognition, Andrews argues for a pluralistic folk psychology that employs different kinds of practices (including prediction, explanation, and justification) and different kinds of cognitive tools (including personality trait attribution, stereotype activation, inductive reasoning about past behavior, and generalization from self) that are involved in our folk psychological practices. According to this understanding of folk psychology—which does not require the sophisticated cognitive machinery of second-order metacognition associated with having a theory of mind—animals (including the other great apes) may be folk psychologists, too.
About the Author
Kristin Andrews is Associate Professor of Philosophy at York University, Toronto.
—Josef Perner, Department of Psychology and Centre for Neurocognitive Research, University of Salzburg
—Robert Gordon, Department of Philosophy, University of Missouri
—Colin Allen, Provost Professor of Cognitive Science and History & Philosophy of Science; Director, Indiana University Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University, Bloomington
Recipient of the 2013 Biennial Book Prize awarded by the Canadian Philosophical Association
CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title, 2013