Parallel Distributed Processing, Volume 2

Parallel Distributed Processing, Volume 2

Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition: Psychological and Biological Models

By James L. McClelland, David E. Rumelhart and PDP Research Group

A Bradford Book





What makes people smarter than computers? These volumes by a pioneering neurocomputing group suggest that the answer lies in the massively parallel architecture of the human mind. They describe a new theory of cognition called connectionism that is challenging the idea of symbolic computation that has traditionally been at the center of debate in theoretical discussions about the mind.

The authors' theory assumes the mind is composed of a great number of elementary units connected in a neural network. Mental processes are interactions between these units which excite and inhibit each other in parallel rather than sequential operations. In this context, knowledge can no longer be thought of as stored in localized structures; instead, it consists of the connections between pairs of units that are distributed throughout the network.

Volume 1 lays the foundations of this exciting theory of parallel distributed processing, while Volume 2 applies it to a number of specific issues in cognitive science and neuroscience, with chapters describing models of aspects of perception, memory, language, and thought.


Out of Print ISBN: 9780262132183 632 pp. | 6 in x 9 in


$45.00 X | £38.00 ISBN: 9780262631105 632 pp. | 6 in x 9 in


  • The most intense, most effective and most mind-stretching view of neurocomputing origins, theories and concerns to yet reach print.



  • Rumelhart and McClelland propose that what is stored in memory is not specific facts or events, but rather the relationships between the various aspects of those facts or events as they are encoded in groupings of neuronal cells or patterns of cell activity.

    Daniel Coleman

    The New York Times

  • [This is] a comprehensive compilation of neural network research and development. There are algorithms you can use to explore various methods in the field. If you want information on neural network technology in book form, this is the set to own.

    Artificial Intelligence Special Interest Group Newsletter