Raymond A. Bauer

Raymond A. Bauer is Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education.

  • Second-Order Consequences

    A Methodological Essay on the Impact of Technology

    Raymond A. Bauer, Richard S. Rosenbloom, and Laure Sharpe

    Every massive technological enterprise – the space program is only one recent example, if the most spectacular – produces major social effects that may be unanticipated and may become, unless their symptoms are noted in time, uncontrollable and unpredictable. Technical advancement also breeds second-order consequences after its own kind: it produces seeds of new technology that can “drop out” and bear fruit in other areas of research. The problem is to foresee, to measure, to control and channel these consequences – in short to manage them. Undesirable second-order consequences must be limited or suppressed, and beneficial ones must be found and brought to maximum utility.

    This volume concentrates on the problem of managing the consequences of technological change in a broad sense, rather than on specific consequences of the space program. Even if it were possible, it would not be desirable to draw a clear line between the space program and large-scale modern technology in general. The urgent job at hand is to develop, almost from the ground up, a new methodology that is adequate in dealing with these questions that become more and more significant as society becomes more and more significant as society becomes more and more dependent on technology. However, the second of the three sections in this book includes, as an application of the methodology developed, an overview of the actual impact of the space program on special groups. One particular problem – the role of technicians in the manpower picture – is selected as an example to be examined in depth.

    This book is the third and concluding volume in the series Technology, Space, and Society, prepared by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The other two volumes in the series are The Railroad and the Space Program, edited by Bruce Mazlish and Social Indicators, edited by Raymond A. Bauer.

    • Hardcover $15.00
  • Social Indicators

    Social Indicators

    Raymond A. Bauer

    The focus of this volume is nothing less than the entire set of social indicators—statistics, statistical series, and all other forms of evidence—that enable us to assess where we stand and where we are going with respect to our values and goals and to evaluate specific programs and determine their impact. The kind of social indicators called for in this volume require an abandonment of the Ptolemaic perspective that sees the world revolving around us and require instead a kind of Copernican revolution through which we may better "regard our decisions as involving the total social system, and not only that part of it which revolves around our own persons." Historically, this book can be compared with the earlier efforts of economists to create a stable and useful set of economic indicators. But the problem with economic indicators is that they deal not with the quality of life but rather with the quantity of goods and dollars. True social indicators can function as a guide for economic indicators. Clearly, the implications of the development of social indicators are revolutionary.This pioneering work is intended specifically to state the full dimensions of the problem, to evaluate the present state of the art, and to make specific proposals for where we might go from here.

    • Hardcover $12.95
    • Paperback $45.00
  • Nine Soviet Portraits

    Nine Soviet Portraits

    Raymond A. Bauer

    The raw material for these vignettes came from hundreds of interviews with Soviet refugees, conducted by the Harvard Refugee Interview Project in 1950-1951. These data were later supported by work at the Harvard Russian Research Center and at the M.I.T. Center for International Studies, and from information from the Soviet press.

    These nine Soviet portraits are of role-types of Russians in the middle ranks of Soviet society in the post-war era. Dr. Bauer believes that this is the crucial group to examine in order to appreciate the problems of social control in the Soviet Union. Members of this group respond to a pattern of more limited incentives and personal motives. At the same time, the contributions of these people are of first importance to the functioning of the Soviet system, and the degree of skill required of them is considerable.

    Nine Soviet Portraits is a study of how these individuals live in a totalitarian society, of the mechanisms of accommodation which they adopt in an almost impossible situation. This book introduces to the general reader some of the basic social and psychological dynamics of Soviet society.

    Not all of the characters or the concepts in this volume will be foreign to the reader. The reader will discover many familiar personalities and situations in these sketches. The Soviet Union is a modern industrial society, and all industrial societies have features in common. This is what makes Nine Soviet Portraits such fascinating reading: it gives compelling insights into the men and women who live behind the Iron Curtain and the social and psychological dynamics which motivate them, and offers an unusual perspective in which to view our own society.

    • Hardcover
    • Paperback $30.00